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Table 2 The unadjusted and adjusted main effects between race and neighborhood poverty rate on emergency diagnosis and emergency surgery and neighborhood random effects

From: Missed opportunities: racial and neighborhood socioeconomic disparities in emergency colorectal cancer diagnosis and surgery

Emergency diagnosis (n = 83,330 patients, 14,191 census tracts)
Characteristic Model 1 emptya model Model Model 2 unadjusted race model Model 3 unadjusted poverty model Model 4 unadjusted race and poverty model Model 5 adjustedbrace and poverty main effects model
  Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
Race           
White -   1   -   1   1  
African American -   1.58 1.50-1.67 -   1.48 1.40-1.57 1.28 (1.20-1.37)
Neighborhood poverty rate           
<10% -   -   1   1   1  
10-19.9% -   -   1.01 0.97-1.05 0.98 0.94-1.02 0.98 (1.04-1.18)
≥20% -     1.32 1.26-1.39 1.17 1.11-1.23 1.11 (1.04-1.18)
  Neighborhood random effects
Variance (se) .4317 (.0114) .4073 (.0110) .4225 (.0112) .4061 (.0110) .4887 (.0157)
Median odds ratio 1.87 1.84 1.86 1.84 1.95
Emergency surgery (n = 55,046 patients, 12,886 census tracts)
Characteristic Model 1 a Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5 b
  Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
Race           
White -   1   -   1   1  
African American -   1.74 1.63-1.87 -   1.63 1.51-1.76 1.33 1.23-1.44
Neighborhood poverty rate           
<10% -   -   1   1   1  
10-19.9% -   -   1.01 0.96-1.06 0.97 0.92-1.02 0.98 0.92-1.03
≥20% -   -   1.36 1.28-1.45 1.17 1.10-1.25 1.11 1.04-1.19
  Neighborhood random effects
Variance (se) .5086 (.0160) .4843 (.0155) .4994 (.0157) .4826 (.0154) .4410 (.0170)
Median odds ratio 1.97 1.94 1.96 1.94 1.88
  1. aModel 1 is an empty model.
  2. bModel 5 includes the following covariates: sex, urban/rural, Medicaid, comorbidity, prior hospitalization, preventable hospitalization, endoscopies in prior year, stage, grade, histology, and tumor location.
  3. Values in bold represent odds ratios for which the 95% confidence interval does not include the value one.