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Table 4 Summary of HPV infection awareness among women (N’ = 542)

From: An epidemiological study assessing the prevalence of human papillomavirus types in women in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Characteristics Categories n %
How frequent is cervical cancer in women? Very frequent 40 7.4
Frequent 162 29.9
Rare 228 42.1
Not sure 112 20.7
What do you think is/are the main reasons for cervical cancer?* Abnormal cells growing inside the body 166 30.6
Bacterial infection 62 11.4
Viral infection 124 22.9
None 45 8.3
Not sure 153 28.2
Which among these can cause cervical cancer?* Persistent infection with HPV 131 24.2
Rous sarcoma virus 14 2.6
Hereditary/genetic factors 160 29.5
None 50 9.2
Not sure 194 35.8
What do you think can turn into cervical cancer* Genital warts 86 15.9
Bacterial infection 63 11.6
Viral infection 119 22.0
Fungal infection 25 4.6
None 57 10.5
Not sure 195 36.0
Apart from avoiding unwanted pregnancy, what would you think can happen with using contraceptive pills* Protects against cervical cancer 33 6.1
Increases risk of cervical cancer 158 29.2
No ill effect at all 159 29.3
Not sure 192 35.4
Did you hear about HPV before? Yes 168 31.3
No 369 68.7
Missing 5 -
If yes*, General physician 76 14.0
Friend or family member 27 5.0
Internet 14 2.6
TV/Magazine/Newspaper 30 5.5
Other 3 0.6
How is HPV transmitted?* Contaminated food/ Water 7 1.3
Mosquito bite 2 0.4
Sexually 344 63.5
None 18 3.3
Not sure 167 30.8
How is cervical cancer diagnosed?* Pap smear test (Papanicolaou test) 139 25.6
Colposcopy 24 4.4
Biopsy sample testing (histological) 185 34.1
All above 141 26.0
None 3 0.6
Not sure 53 9.8
Is it possible to prevent cervical cancer? Yes 432 80.9
No 34 6.4
Not sure 68 12.7
Missing 8 -
If yes*, Through cancer vaccine 56 10.3
Through responsible sexual behavior 116 21.4
Through cervical screening 272 50.2
Through condom use 13 2.4
If the vaccine against cervical cancer is available, would you be interested in getting vaccinated? Yes 495 91.3
No 47 8.7
  1. N’: number of women for whom the questionnaire data was collected; n: number of women in specified category for whom the questionnaire data was collected; %: n/N*100.
  2. *Participating women could have selected more than one option.