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Table 3 The association between thyroid function/autoimmunity biomarkers and thyroid cancer risk, stratified by sex, BMI, smoking status, and the duration of follow-up a

From: Biomarkers of thyroid function and autoimmunity for predicting high-risk groups of thyroid cancer: a nested case–control study

  Sex BMI (kg/m2) Smoking Follow-up duration
  Men Women <23 ≥23 Non-smoker Former/Current smoker < 3 years ≥3 years
Controls/Cases 77/77 180/180 125/95 132/162 147/158 80/70 97/171 160/86
TT3 (ng/mL)         
  <1.2 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  1.2 - <1.4 1.66(0.68 - 4.04) 1.08(0.67 - 1.75) 1.16(0.63 - 2.15) 1.18(0.67 - 2.08) 0.92(0.55 - 1.54) 2.07(0.85 - 5.02) 1.81(1.03 - 3.20)* 0.93(0.47 - 1.83)
  ≥1.4 1.56(0.61 - 4.00) 1.22(0.69 - 2.14) 0.93(0.43 - 2.00) 1.50(0.81 - 2.78) 0.80(0.43 - 1.51) 1.97(0.80 - 4.89) 2.51(1.21 - 5.22)* 1.10(0.53 - 2.25)
FT4 (ng/dL)         
  <1.25 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  1.25 - <1.39 0.65(0.23 - 1.80) 1.19(0.71 - 2.00) 1.37(0.62 - 2.89) 0.91(0.51 - 1.64) 0.82(0.46 - 1.46) 1.05(0.42 - 2.66) 1.58(0.84 - 2.97) 0.73(0.36 - 1.46)
  ≥1.39 1.44(0.53 - 3.88) 1.76(1.06 - 2.92)* 2.52(1.28 - 4.96)* 1.43(0.78 - 2.60) 1.46(0.83 - 2.56) 1.85(0.77 - 4.41) 3.01(1.57 - 5.77)* 1.10(0.57 - 2.10)
TSH (μIU/mL)         
  <1.36 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  1.36 - <2.5 2.31(1.06 - 5.02)* 1.58(0.92 - 2.72) 1.16(0.59 - 2.29) 2.31(1.30 - 4.13)* 1.71(0.95 - 3.09) 2.44(1.14 - 5.24)* 2.07(1.11 - 3.88)* 1.57(0.80 - 3.06)
  ≥2.5 1.97(0.76 - 5.08) 1.16(0.68 - 1.97) 0.96(0.49 - 1.89) 1.82(0.98 - 3.37) 1.23(0.68 - 2.22) 1.33(0.53 - 3.38) 1.36(0.72 - 2.59) 1.41(0.70 - 2.83)
Tg (ng/mL)b         
  0 - <3.9 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  3.9 - <7 1.09(0.46 - 2.57) 0.93(0.52 - 1.66) 1.09(0.52 - 2.30) 0.95(0.52 - 1.77) 0.77(0.41 - 1.43) 1.16(0.48 - 2.79) 1.75(0.87 - 3.52) 0.65(0.32 - 1.33)
  ≥7 2.98(1.23 - 7.17)* 1.08(0.63 - 1.83) 1.09(0.55 - 2.14) 1.89(1.02 - 3.49)* 0.98(0.55 - 1.75) 2.52(1.05 - 6.03)* 1.80(0.96 - 3.36) 1.06(0.54 - 2.10)
TgAb (IU/mL)c         
  <20 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  20 - <60 1.77(0.31 - 10.20) 1.56(0.77 - 3.19) 1.92(0.77 - 4.79) 1.27(0.50 - 3.26) 1.54(0.71 - 3.33) 1.33(0.28 - 6.26) 1.25(0.55 - 2.83) 1.17(0.35 - 3.89)
  ≥60 0.25(0.03 - 2.22) 1.31(0.71 - 2.41) 1.16(0.49 - 2.77) 1.11(0.52 - 2.37) 1.14(0.53 - 2.47) 1.07(0.30 - 3.79) 1.67(0.71 - 3.92) 0.77(0.32 - 1.87)
TPOAb (IU/mL)c         
  <30 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref) 1.0(ref)
  30 - <60 5.59(2.57 - 12.16)* 10.67(6.03 - 18.88)* 8.77(4.30 - 17.86)* 8.40(4.62 - 15.24)* 10.96(5.85 - 20.53)* 4.97(2.31 - 10.69)* 6.10(3.10 - 11.67)* 14.75(2.36 - 29.56)*
  ≥60 3.89(1.05 - 14.41)* 4.60(2.50 - 8.46)* 4.43(1.95 - 10.04)* 4.41(2.10 - 9.26)* 3.52(1.78 - 6.96)* 6.35(1.80 - 22.41)* 4.54(2.10 - 9.84)* 4.32(1.77 - 10.52)*
  1. Abbreviations: BMI, Body mass index; CI, Confidence interval; OR, Odds ratio; TT3, Total triiodothyronine; FT4, Free thyroxine; TSH, Thyroid-stimulating hormone; Tg, thyroglobulin; TgAb, Anti-thyroglobulin antibody; TPOAb, Anti-thyroperoxidase antibody.
  2. aData were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models which were adjusted for age, sex, BMI, and smoking; bAnalyzed only for TgAb-negative subjects; cThe detection limits used were 20 IU/mL for TgAb and 30 IU/mL for TPOAb.
  3. * P <0.05.