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Table 1 Baseline and radiologic characteristics of the study patients (n =330)

From: Surgical resection of nodular ground-glass opacities without percutaneous needle aspiration or biopsy

  Benign Malignant p-value
(n =16) (n =314)
Baseline characteristics    
Age (years)a 58.1 ± 7.3 62.1 ± 10.4 0.127
Male sex, no. (%) 9 (56.3) 147 (46.8) 0.461
Smoking, no. (%)    0.555
  Never-smoker 8 (50.0) 196 (62.4)  
  Ex-smoker 6 (37.5) 95 (30.3)  
  Current-smoker 2 (12.5) 23 (7.3)  
Smoking (PY) 12.2 ± 17.3 10.0 ± 16.5 0.605
Radiologic characteristics    
Size (mm)a 15.1 ± 9.3 20.3 ± 11.0 0.063
GGO pattern, no. (%)    1.0
  Pure 3 (18.8) 72 (22.9)  
  Part-solid 13 (81.3) 242 (77.1)  
TDR (%)a 86.6 ± 17.5 83.3 ± 20.7 0.536
Air bronchogram, no. (%) 7 (43.8) 175 (55.7) 0.347
Bubble lucency, no. (%) 2 (12.5) 46 (14.6) 1.0
Pleural or fissure retraction, no. (%) 4 (25.0) 143 (45.5) 0.107
Irregular margin, no. (%) 6 (37.5) 148 (47.1) 0.451
Maximal SUV on FDG-PET/CTa,b 0.39 ± 0.67 1.19 ± 1.28 0.101
Progression, no. (%)c    1.0
  Progression 4/12 (33.3)d 88/232 (37.9)  
  Without progression 8/12 (66.7) 144/232 (62.1)e  
  1. aExpressed as mean values ± standard deviations.
  2. bAmong the 330 nGGOs, 191 underwent FDG-PET/CT.
  3. cSerial CT scans at least 4 weeks interval were available for 244 nGGOs over the median follow-up duration of 9.1 months (range, 7.3 - 123.9 months).
  4. dThree GGOs had increased in whole GGO size and one pure GGO had become a part solid nodule. The two of three GGOs were subpleural fibrosis and the other one was atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on the final pathology. The one GGO becoming a part solid nodule was the anthracofibrotic nodule.
  5. eOne GGO had decreased in size, which was adenocarcinoma, acinar predominant.
  6. PY, pack-years; GGO, ground-glass opacity; TDR, tumor disappearance rate; SUV, maximal standardized uptake value; FDG-PET/CT, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.