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Table 4 Protein expression of TGF-β signaling components inversely correlate with CXCL1 expression in breast stroma

From: Elevated CXCL1 expression in breast cancer stroma predicts poor prognosis and is inversely associated with expression of TGF-β signaling proteins

Signaling component r 95% CI p-value n
TGF-β -0.33 -0.52 to -0.09 0.01 69
p-Smad2 -0.25 -0.44 to -0.027 0.02 80
p-Smad3 -0.32 -0.50 to -0.10 <0.01 81
  1. Spearman Correlation used to determine the association between expression of CXCL1 and expression of TGF-β signaling components in normal and breast cancer stroma. Normal stroma refers to samples from both reduction mammoplasty and adjacent breast tissue.
  2. Significance was determined by p<0.05. r= correlation coefficient.