CXCL1 expression is upregulated in the stroma of breast ductal carcinomas. A. CXCL1 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining in normal (n =54), DCIS (n =25) or IDC (n =58) tissues. S = Stroma, E = epithelium. Magnified insets show representative CXCL1 staining in stroma. Scale bar = 50 microns. B. Staining in stroma was quantified by Image J analysis. Statistical analysis was determined by Kruskall-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc comparison. *p ≤0.001 ***p ≥0.05. Values are expressed as Mean ± SEM. C. CXCL1 RNA expression values were obtained from the Finak microarray database (Oncomine.org) and analyzed for expression among patient samples.