Effect of NC on angiogenesis in hepatic cancer xenograft mice and HUVECs. (A) CD31 assay in tumor tissues (400 ×). Data shown are averages with S.D. (error bars) from 6 individual mouse in each group. *P < 0.01, versus controls. (B) HUVEC’s viability was determined by the MTT assay after cells were treated with the various concentrations of NC for the indicated time periods. The data were normalized to the viability of control cells (100%, treated with 0.1% DMSO vehicle). Data are averages with S.D. (error bars) from at least three independent experiments. *P < 0.05, versus controls. (C) Tube formation assay in HUVEc (100 ×). The network-like structures were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Images are representatives of three independent experiments.