The effect of ADI on caspase-3 and cyclin D1, and the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2 in ASS-deficient PANC-1 cells. A, ADI (1 mU/mL) up-regulates caspase-3 protein and decreases cell cycle protein cyclin D1 in a time-dependent manner in PANC-1 cells. *, P < 0.05 as compared with the treatment at 0 h; NS, not significant. B, ADI treatment (1 mU/mL for 0–24 h) of PANC-1 cells resulted in reduced phosphorylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit at Ser536. *, P < 0.05 as compared with the treatment group at 0 h; NS, not significant. C, The effect of ADI (1 mU/mL) on the phosphorylation of cell survival- associated proteins STAT3, Akt, and ERK1/2. *, P < 0.05 as compared with the control group; NS, not significant.