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Table 4 Effect modification by smoking status on the association between cardiac glycosides and lung cancer incidence

From: Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case–control study

Smoking status Cases Controls Adjusted RR (95% CI)a P value for interaction
Never 134 4780   
  No use, n (%) 92 3270 1.00 (Reference) 0.37
  Ever use, n (%) 42 1510 1.08 (0.74-1.58)
Ever 1031 6531  
  No use, n (%) 722 4568 1.00 (Reference)
  Ever use, n (%) 309 1963 1.06 (0.90-1.24)
Unknown 72 1009  
  No use, n (%) 46 690 1.00 (Reference)
  Ever use, n (%) 26 319 1.55 (0.93-2.58)  
  1. aAdjusted on BMI indication of CG use excessive alcohol use history of tobacco-related conditions history of lung diseases factors associated with sexual hormonal disorders drugs potentially associated with lung cancer (statins aspirin oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs anti-hypertensives oral bisphosphonates anti-diabetic drugs) and amiodarone.
  2. RR Rate Ratio.