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Table 2 Crude and adjusted rate ratios for the association between the use of cardiac glycosides and lung cancer incidence

From: Cardiac glycosides use and the risk of lung cancer: a nested case–control study

Exposure to cardiac glycosides Cases Controls Crude RR Adjusted RR (95% CI)a
(n = 1237) (n = 12,320)
Overall
  No use, n (%) 860 (69.5) 8528 (69.2) 1.00 1.00 (Reference)
  Ever use, n (%) 377 (30.5) 3792 (30.8) 0.98 1.09 (0.94 - 1.26)
Cumulative duration of use
  <14 months, n (%) 102 (8.2) 962 (7.8) 1.04 1.14 (0.91 - 1.45)
  14 - 32 months, n (%) 102 (8.2) 931 (7.6) 1.10 1.21 (0.96 - 1.54)
  32 - 60 months, n (%) 84 (6.8) 927 (7.5) 0.89 0.97 (0.75 - 1.25)
  > 60 months, n (%) 89 (7.2) 972 (7.9) 0.89 0.99 (0.76 - 1.29)
Cumulative dose (in digoxin-equivalents)
  < 60 mg, n (%) 121 (9.8) 1109 (9.0) 1.08 1.17 (0.94 - 1.45)
  60 - 120 mg, n (%) 85 (6.9) 746 (6.1) 1.14 1.24 (0.96 - 1.59)
  120 - 240 mg, n (%) 88 (7.1) 880 (7.1) 0.99 1.08 (0.84 - 1.39)
  >240 mg, n (%) 83 (6.7) 1057 (8.6) 0.76 0.85 (0.65 - 1.11)
  1. aAdjusted on smoking status BMI indication of CG use excessive alcohol use history of tobacco-related conditions history of lung diseases factors associated with sexual hormonal disorders drugs potentially associated with lung cancer (statins aspirin oral anticoagulants and antiplatelets non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs anti-hypertensives oral bisphosphonates anti-diabetic drugs) and amiodarone.
  2. RR Rate ratio, CGs Cardiac Glycosides.