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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of cause-specific survival in patients with middle ear cancer

From: Prognostic models to predict overall and cause-specific survival for patients with middle ear cancer: a population-based analysis

  Full model Reduced model
Covariate HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Age (70:45) 1.66 1.16-2.38 0.004* 1.70 1.19-2.45 0.002*
Sex       
  Male 1    -   
  Female 1.37 0.89-2.11 0.15 - - -
Race       
  White 1    -   
  Non White 0.80 0.47-1.38 0.42 - - -
Year of diagnosis (2000:1990) 0.80 0.61-1.05 0.11 - - -
Stage       
  Localized 1    1   
  Regional 2.93 1.43-6.00 0.003* 2.93 1.43-5.99 0.003*
  Distant 4.88 2.20-10.82 <0.001* 4.82 2.17-10.69 <0.001*
Radiation       
  No 1    1   
  Yes 1.84 1.07-3.15 0.03* 2.14 1.28-3.58 0.004*
Histological types# - - 0.003* - - 0.004*
Surgery# - - 0.06 - - 0.05
Histology × surgery - - 0.03* - - 0.02*
Surgery       
  Squamous cell carcinoma 1    1   
  Adenocarcinoma 0.16 0.06-0.46 <0.001* 0.18 0.06-0.50 0.001*
  Others 0.55 0.27-1.12 0.10 0.60 0.30-1.19 0.15
No surgery       
  Squamous cell carcinoma 1    1   
  Adenocarcinoma 1.95 0.40-9.51 0.41 2.33 0.47-11.68 0.30
  Others 0.51 0.19-1.39 0.19 0.54 0.20-1.46 0.22
  1. Abbreviations: HR Hazard Ratio, CI Confidence Interval.
  2. #Hazard ratios for histology type are presented by surgery because of the significant interaction between these two covariates.
  3. *P <0.05.