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Table 3 Multivariable analysis of overall survival in patients with middle ear cancer

From: Prognostic models to predict overall and cause-specific survival for patients with middle ear cancer: a population-based analysis

  Full model Reduced model
Covariate HR 95% CI P-value HR 95% CI P-value
Age (70:45) 2.05 1.50-2.80 <0.001* 2.07 1.52-2.82 <0.001*
Sex       
  Male 1    -   
  Female 1.17 0.82-1.67 0.38 - - -
Race       
  White 1    -   
  Non White 1.11 0.73-1.68 0.64 - - -
Year of diagnosis (2000:1990) 0.89 0.70-1.14 0.35 - - -
Stage       
  Localized 1    1   
  Regional 2.01 1.23-3.28 0.005* 2.00 1.22-3.25 0.01*
  Distant 3.47 1.94-6.22 <0.001* 3.46 1.93-6.19 <0.001*
Radiation       
  No 1    1   
  Yes 1.52 1.00-2.30 0.05 1.66 1.12-2.46 0.01*
Histological types# - - <0.001* - - <0.001*
Surgery# - - 0.02* - - 0.02*
Histology × surgery - - 0.01* - - 0.01*
Surgery       
  Squamous cell carcinoma 1    1   
  Adenocarcinoma 0.23 0.11-0.47 <0.001* 0.24 0.12-0.50 <0.001*
  Others 0.67 0.39-1.17 0.15 0.70 0.40-1.20 0.20
No surgery       
  Squamous cell carcinoma 1    1   
  Adenocarcinoma 1.97 0.55-7.11 0.29 2.21 0.61-7.93 0.22
  Others 0.57 0.25-1.27 0.16 0.58 0.26-1.28 0.18
  1. Abbreviations: HR Hazard Ratio, CI Confidence Interval.
  2. #Hazard ratios for histology type are presented by surgery because of the significant interaction between these two covariates.
  3. *P <0.05.