Effect of VFL on epithelial differentiation and apoptosis. A, Western blot analysis of E-cadherin and Hakai expression levels in HT1373 bladder tumour cells treated with 5 μM VFL for 48 h. B, immunofluorescence analysis of E-cadherin expression in HT1376 cells treated with 5 μM VFL for 48 hours. Scale bar, 200 μM. C, TUNEL staining for the analysis of apoptosis was performed following by immunofluorescence of E-cadherin in HT1376 cells treated with 5 μM VFL for 48 hours, as indicated in material and methods. Scale bar, 50 μM. D, Western blot analysis of the levels of E-cadherin, Hakai, N-cadherin and vimentin in UMUC3 bladder tumour cells treated with 5 μM VFL for 48 hours. Western blots are representative of three independent experiments and GAPDH was assessed as loading control.