Epithelial-to-mesenchymal markers. A, the endogenous expression levels of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin were assessed in bladder tumour cells (HT1376, SW780, UMUC3, T24 and 5637) by western blot analysis. B, the effect of 5 μM VFL treatments of 5637 bladder tumour cells for 48 and 72 h on the indicated protein markers was assessed by western blot analysis. C, Cyclin D1 expression levels were assessed by Western blot analysis after treatment of 5637 bladder tumour cells for 48 and 72 h with VFL. Western blot data are representative of three independent experiments and GAPDH antibody was used as loading control for normalization.