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Table 2 Incidence rate ratio of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in men and women, lagged by 5 years, per IQR 1increase in total THMs and THM species, adjusted for socio-economic status, area of residence, year of incidence, water source 2 , smoking 3 , risky alcohol consumption 4 and spatial random effect

From: Colon and rectal cancer incidence and water trihalomethane concentrations in New South Wales, Australia

THM species Sex Colorectal cancer Colon cancer Rectal cancer
Total THM Male 1.018 (0.995, 1.040) 1.020 (0.990, 1.049) 1.013 (0.977, 1.049)
Chloroform Male 1.010 (0.988, 1.032) 1.010 (0.983, 1.037) 1.011 (0.980, 1.045)
Bromoform Male 1.025 (1.009, 1.040) 1.035 (1.017, 1.053) 1.011 (0.989, 1.036)
BDCM Male 1.018 (0.994, 1.044) 1.024 (0.994, 1.055) 1.012 (0.972, 1.051)
DBCM Male 1.010 (0.984, 1.035) 1.017 (0.987, 1.050) 0.996 (0.959, 1.037)
Total THM Female 0.977 (0.953, 1.001) 0.976 (0.946, 1.006) 0.984 (0.940, 1.027)
Chloroform Female 0.978 (0.954, 0.999) 0.974 (0.946, 1.003) 0.989 (0.946, 1.038)
Bromoform Female 1.003 (0.987, 1.018) 0.999 (0.979, 1.019) 1.012 (0.982, 1.042)
BDCM Female 0.979 (0.956, 1.000) 0.983 (0.952, 1.014) 0.973 (0.926, 1.024)
DBCM Female 0.995 (0.970, 1.021) 0.997 (0.966, 1.028) 0.994 (0.945, 1.045)
  1. 1IQR: Total THM = 29 μg/L, Chloroform = 22 μg/L, Bromoform = 2 μg/L, BDCM = 6 μg/L and DBCM = 4 μg/L.
  2. Note that the IQR values have been rounded to estimate IRR for ease of interpretation.
  3. 2Proportion of people using tap water in each LGA.
  4. 3Proportion smokers in each LGA.
  5. 4Proportion of risky alcohol drinker.