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Table 2 Incidence rate ratio of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer in men and women, lagged by 5 years, per IQR 1increase in total THMs and THM species, adjusted for socio-economic status, area of residence, year of incidence, water source 2 , smoking 3 , risky alcohol consumption 4 and spatial random effect

From: Colon and rectal cancer incidence and water trihalomethane concentrations in New South Wales, Australia

THM species

Sex

Colorectal cancer

Colon cancer

Rectal cancer

Total THM

Male

1.018 (0.995, 1.040)

1.020 (0.990, 1.049)

1.013 (0.977, 1.049)

Chloroform

Male

1.010 (0.988, 1.032)

1.010 (0.983, 1.037)

1.011 (0.980, 1.045)

Bromoform

Male

1.025 (1.009, 1.040)

1.035 (1.017, 1.053)

1.011 (0.989, 1.036)

BDCM

Male

1.018 (0.994, 1.044)

1.024 (0.994, 1.055)

1.012 (0.972, 1.051)

DBCM

Male

1.010 (0.984, 1.035)

1.017 (0.987, 1.050)

0.996 (0.959, 1.037)

Total THM

Female

0.977 (0.953, 1.001)

0.976 (0.946, 1.006)

0.984 (0.940, 1.027)

Chloroform

Female

0.978 (0.954, 0.999)

0.974 (0.946, 1.003)

0.989 (0.946, 1.038)

Bromoform

Female

1.003 (0.987, 1.018)

0.999 (0.979, 1.019)

1.012 (0.982, 1.042)

BDCM

Female

0.979 (0.956, 1.000)

0.983 (0.952, 1.014)

0.973 (0.926, 1.024)

DBCM

Female

0.995 (0.970, 1.021)

0.997 (0.966, 1.028)

0.994 (0.945, 1.045)

  1. 1IQR: Total THM = 29 μg/L, Chloroform = 22 μg/L, Bromoform = 2 μg/L, BDCM = 6 μg/L and DBCM = 4 μg/L.
  2. Note that the IQR values have been rounded to estimate IRR for ease of interpretation.
  3. 2Proportion of people using tap water in each LGA.
  4. 3Proportion smokers in each LGA.
  5. 4Proportion of risky alcohol drinker.