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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis of factors affecting overall survival (N = 2711)

From: Survival analysis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgical resection following 4 lung cancer resection guidelines

  Univariate Multivariate
Variables HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) Pvalue
Age (y) 1.008 (1.002, 1.013) 0.006* 1.014 (1.008, 1.020) <0.001*
Gender     
 Female reference    
 Male 1.017 (0.909, 1.138) 0.774   
Smoking history     
 Never reference    
 Smoker 1.061 (0.950, 1.185) 0.293   
Surgical procedure   <0.001*   <0.001*
 Segmentectomy reference   reference  
 Lobectomy 1.002 (0.709, 1.418) 0.989 0.975 (0.672, 1.413) 0.892
 Pneumonectomy 1.451 (1.006, 2.092) 0.047* 1.338 (0.901, 1.986) 0.149
 Extended 1.668 (0.892, 3.119) 0.109 1.533 (0.804, 2.921) 0.194
Surgical margin status     
 Negative reference   reference  
 Positive 1.612 (1.298, 2.004) <.001* 1.200 (0.883, 1.632) 0.243
Histology   0.006*   0.034*
 Squamous reference   reference  
 Adenocarcinoma 0.884 (0.785, 0.997) 0.044* 1.000 (0.883, 1.132) 0.999
 Large cell 0.912 (0.547, 1.522) 0.726 1.002 (0.600, 1.674) 0.993
 Adenosquamous 1.327 (1.067, 1.651) 0.011* 1.347 (1.080, 1.680) 0.008*
 Other 1.084 (0.896, 1.312) 0.409 1.208 (0.994, 1.467) 0.057
T stage     
 T1/T2 reference    
 T3/T4 1.646 (1.430, 1.895) <0.001*   
N stage     
 N0 reference    
 N1/N2 1.697 (1.526, 1.887) <0.001*   
AJCC TNM Stage   <0.001*   <0.001*
 I reference   reference  
 II 1.612 (1.405, 1.850) <0.001* 1.571 (1.366, 1.808) <0.001*
 III 2.172 (1.917, 2.461) <0.001* 2.101 (1.835, 2.405) <0.001*
Lymph node stations examined     
 ≥ 6 group reference   reference  
 < 6 group 1.197 (1.075, 1.333) 0.001* 1.199 (0.771, 1.863) 0.421
Number of lymph nodes removed   <0.001*   0.075
 ≥ 20 reference   reference  
 10-20 0.954 (0.842, 1.082) 0.463 0.935 (0.819, 1.067) 0.318
 < 10 1.264 (1.109, 1.441) <0.001* 1.125 (0.943, 1.343) 0.190
Followed IASLC guidelines     
 Yes 0.715 (0.641, 0.797) <0.001* 0.840 (0.716, 0.985) 0.032*
 No reference   reference  
Followed ACOSOG guidelines     
 Yes 0.816 (0.733, 0.908) <0.001* 1.088 (0.389, 3.045) 0.873
 No reference   reference  
Followed RADIANT guidelines     
 Yes 0.785 (0.696, 0.885) <0.001* 0.887 (0.735, 1.071) 0.213
 No reference   reference  
Followed NCCN guidelines     
 Yes 0.814 (0.732, 0.906) <0.001* 1.089 (0.422, 2.811) 0.860
 No reference   reference  
Adjuvant chemotherapy     
 Yes 0.989 (0.890, 1.099) 0.835   
 No reference    
Radiotherapy     
 Yes 0.768 (0.671, 0.877) <0.001* 0.915 (0.797, 1.049) 0.203
 No reference   reference  
Immunotherapy     
 Yes 1.063 (0.83, 1.281) 0.517   
 No reference    
  1. ACOSOG, American College of Surgeons Oncology Group; IASLC, International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC); NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network; RADIANT, OSI Pharmaceutical’s RADIANT study; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. Variables with a significant association with overall survival in univariate analysis (P < 0.05) were selected and put into the multivariate analysis.
  3. Note: Because T stage, N stage, and TNM stage are collinear, only TNM stage was included in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.
  4. *Significant risk factor, P < 0.05.