The effects of HA-1077 (0.5–30 μM) on bladder cancer cell viability. Fluorescence images generated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated UTP end-labeling (TUNEL) analysis of the bladder cancer cells. Total cell population was visualized by staining with 4′,6-diamidine-2-phenylin- dole (DAPI). Graph at right shows apoptotic index, the percentage of apoptotic cells in 1000 cells. HA-1077 demonstrates apoptosis induction of 5637 (A) and UM-UC-3 cells (B). LPA plus GGOH reduced apoptotic cells in 5637 (C) and UM-UC-3 cells (D). The data show the 95% confidential interval.