Estrogenic regulation of CXCL12 and CXCR4 in control and COUP clones. Control (Cont.) and COUP clones were treated with ethanol (EtOH) as the vehicle or E2 10−8 M and ICI 10−6 M alone or both together for 48 h. The CXCL12
(A) and CXCR4
(B) relative mRNA levels were monitored by a real-time PCR analysis, normalized to GAPDH mRNA as the internal control, and were expressed as the relative mRNA expression of CXCL12 or CXCR4. Data are the mean ± SEM of at least three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate significant differences (p < 0.05) between the untreated and treated control clones. The pound sign indicates significant differences (p < 0.05) between the untreated and treated COUP clones.