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Table 5 Construct validity in the non-student sample

From: Development of a scale to assess cancer stigma in the non-patient population

  Severity Personal responsibility Awkwardness Avoidance Policy opposition Financial discrimination
Sex       
 Male 3.23 2.03 2.84 1.86 2.14 2.50
 Female 3.45 1.78 2.78 1.52 1.83 2.34
 t-test (p-value) -1.77 (.077) 1.89 (.059) 0.47 (.643) 2.98 (.003) 2.59 (.010) 0.98 (.327)
Age       
 16-34 years 3.42 2.17 3.18 1.83 2.30 2.65
 35-54 years 3.42 1.61 2.61 1.69 1.86 2.36
 55+ years 3.13 1.66 2.29 1.44 1.51 2.06
 Anova (p-value) 2.03 (.133) 8.45 (<.001) 17.18 (<.001) 4.16 (.017) 17.08 (<.001) 4.91 (.008)
Education*       
 School level - low 3.55 1.72 2.68 1.56 1.67 2.42
 School level - high 3.32 1.92 2.78 1.65 2.00 2.32
 University level 3.17 2.07 3.01 1.82 2.33 2.55
 Anova (p-value) 2.61 (.076) 2.06 (.131) 1.60 (.204) 1.74 (.179) 8.72 (<.001) 0.63 (.532)
Ethnicity       
 White 3.29 1.78 2.74 1.63 1.87 2.32
 Other 3.57 2.44 3.06 1.96 2.45 2.87
 t-test (p-value) -1.79 (.075) -3.40 (.001) -1.81 (.071) -2.34 (.020) -3.79 (<.001) -2.74 (.007)
Close friend or family member has had cancer       
 No 3.53 1.93 3.12 1.85 2.14 2.66
 Yes 3.28 1.90 2.70 1.64 1.93 2.34
 t-test (p-value) 1.80 (.073) 0.18 (.858) 2.65 (.009) 1.64 (.103) 1.48 (.140) 1.69 (.093)
Social desirability       
 Low score (0–5) 3.43 2.01 3.19 1.90 2.19 2.70
 High score (6–10) 3.28 1.82 2.51 1.53 1.82 2.20
 t-test (p-value) 1.17 (.242) 1.45 (.149) 5.11 (<.001) 3.21 (.002) 3.01 (.003) 3.12 (.002)
  1. *Low school level = GCSEs as their highest qualification, High school level = A-levels or a qualification below degree.