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Table 1 Demography and clinical characteristics of early age acute leukaemia subtypes, Brazil, 2000-2010

From: RAS mutations in early age leukaemia modulated by NQO1 rs1800566 (C609T) are associated with second-hand smoking exposures

  Total, n (%) ALL (%) (n = 150) AML (%) (n = 85) p
Age (months)     
≤12 120 (51.1) 82 (54.7) 38 (44.7) 0.14
13-24 115 (48.9) 68 (45.3) 47 (55.3)  
Gender     
Male 131 (55.7) 78 (52.0) 53 (62.4) 0.12
Female 104 (44.3) 72 (48.0) 32 (37.6)  
Skin colour     
White 139 (59.9) 92 (61.7) 47 (56.6) 0.44
Non-White 93 (40.1) 57 (38.3) 36 (43.4)  
WBC (x10 9 /L)     
≤50 106 (46.5) 59 (40.4) 47 (57.3) 0.01
>50 122 (53.5) 87 (59.6) 35 (42.7)  
Chromosomal alterations     
MLL r 102 (77.3) 73 (78.5) 29 (74.4) 0.006
ETV6-RUNX1 7 (5.3) 7 (7.5) 0 (0.0)  
Hyperdiploidy 6 (4.5) 6 (6.5) 0 (0.0)  
Others 17 (12.9) 7 (7.5)a 10 (25.6)b  
RAS c     
Wild-type 175 (74.5) 105 (70.0) 70 (82.4) 0.03
Mutated 60 (25.5) 45 (30.0) 15 (17.6)  
BRAF     
Wild-type 124 (99.2) 61 (100.0) 63 (98.4) 1.00
Mutated 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1 (1.6)  
FLT3     
Wild-type 148 (93.1) 88 (91.7) 60 (95.2) 0.52
Mutated 11 (6.9) 8 (8.3) 3 (4.8)  
NQO1 (rs1800566) d     
CC 97 (54.2) 67 (53.6) 30 (55.6) 0.91
CT 70 (39.1) 50 (40.0) 20 (37.0)  
TT 12 (6.7) 8 (6.4) 4 (7.4)  
  1. aFour pre-B ALL cases presenting the fusion transcript TCF3-PBX1, one pre-B ALL case presenting the cytogenetics t(2;14)(p10;q23), one pre-B ALL case presenting the cytogenetics t(5;15)(q12;q13) and one common ALL case presenting complex karyotype. bOne M4-AML presenting RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion transcript. Five M4-AML cases presenting CBFβ-MYH11 fusion transcript. One M3-AML presenting PML-RARa fusion transcript. One M0-AML, one M7-AML case and one AML case not otherwise specified presenting complex karyotype. AML subtypes according to FAB classification; cMutations in either KRAS or NRAS. dGenotype frequencies of NQO1 polymorphism. ALL: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; AML: acute myeloid leukaemia; n: number of cases; WBC: white blood cell; MLL r: rearranged MLL.