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Table 1 Individual components of the healthy lifestyle index score and their distribution among Māori and non-Māori participants

From: Healthy lifestyle and risk of breast cancer for indigenous and non-indigenous women in New Zealand: a case control study

Lifestyle factor and index score Māori Non-Māori  
(n = 776) (n = 2435)  
Case Control Case Control  
% % P % % P P*
Recommendation: Limit intake of red meat
Marker: Red meat
  0 ≥5 times per week 20.6 20.8   15.7 16.4   
  0.5 3-4 times per week 56.4 48.9   54.2 54.0   
  1 ≤2 times per week 23.0 30.3 0.213 30.1 29.6 0.894 0.029
Recommendation: Choose a variety of protein foods
Marker: White meat
  0 None 1.7   3.0 4.2   
  0.5 1-2 times per week 58.7 49.7   60.3 61.9   
  1 ≥3 times per week 41.3 48.6 0.081 36.7 33.9 0.145 <0.001
Recommendation: Increase the amount and variety of seafood
Marker: Fish         
  0 None 9.5 14.2   12.6 15.3   
  0.5 1-2 times per week 74.6 72.8   82.4 78.6   
  1 ≥3 times per week 15.9 13.1 0.309 5.0 6.1 0.070 <0.001
Recommendation: Limit consumption of energy-dense foods
Marker: Cream
  0 ≥3 times per week 33.3 32.8   42.3 39.4   
  0.5 1-2 times per week 55.6 54.1   43.8 42.5   
  1 None 11.1 13.1 0.832 13.9 18.1 0.019 <0.001
Recommendation: Reduce the intake of calories from solid fats
Marker: Cheese
  0 ≥3 times per week 45.2 44.0   55.4 57.4   
  0.5 1-2 times per week 50.8 49.1   41.4 37.0   
  1 None 4.0 6.9 0.465 3.2 5.7 0.004 <0.001
Recommendation: Eat mostly foods of plant origin
Marker: Vegetables & fruit
  0 <28 servings per week 77.2 76.6   65.6 64.3   
  0.5 ≥28-< 35 11.9 10.3   13.8 15.8   
  1 ≥35 11.9 13.1 0.831 20.7 19.9 0.376 <0.001
Recommendation: Limit alcoholic drinks
Marker: Alcohol
  0 5+ drinks per time 42.9 39.1   10.3 11.0   
  0.5 1-4 42.9 50.3   78.2 79.7   
  1 Non-drinker 14.3 10.6 0.242 11.5 9.3 0.221 <0.001
Recommendation: Do not smoke
Marker: Smoking
  0 Current 31.0 27.1   8.2 11.7   
  0.5 Former 48.4 44.5   36.5 33.8   
  1 Never 20.6 28.5 0.191 55.3 54.6 0.017 <0.001
Recommendation: Be physically active as part of your everyday life
Marker: Exercise (strenous + moderate Godin score)
  0 <24 61.1 59.1   56.1 54.4   
  0.5 ≥24-< 36 26.2 19.2   25.5 26.4   
  1 ≥36 12.7 21.7 0.033 18.4 19.2 0.713 0.002
Recommendation: Be as lean as possible without becoming underweight
Marker: BMI
  0 30+ 39.7 37.9   21.8 20.7   
  0.5 25-< 30 28.6 28.2   33.9 28.5   
  1 <25 31.8 34.0 0.878 44.3 50.8 0.004 <0.001
Recommendation: Breastfeed infants for at least six months
Marker: Breastfeeding
  0 Never breastfeed 21.4 23.4   25.4 22.2   
  0.5 Cumulative breastfeeding >0-< 6 months 21.4 13.1   19.9 17.4   
  1 Cumulative breastfeeding ≥6 months 57.1 63.5 0.050 54.7 60.4 0.020 0.046
  1. P value: chi squared test between cases and controls.
  2. P* value: chi squared test between Māori and non-Māori controls.
  3. Recommendation sources: New Zealand Ministry of Health [2022]; World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research [6]; U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [24].