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Table 2 Subgroup analysis of intake n-3/n-6 PUFAs ratio for highest quantile vs. lowest

From: Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

Subgroup factors N Pooled RR (95% CI) Heterogeneity P b P c
I 2 Degree P a
Overall analysis 11 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 11.40% Low 0.33   
Study design       0.53 0.60
PC 5 0.92 (0.84, 1.00) 7.70% Low 0.37   
NCC 6 0.82 (0.62, 1.08) 20.60% Low 0.27   
Nations       0.07 0.12
Europe 5 1.00 (0.84, 1.18) 8.90% Low 0.36   
USA 4 0.88 (0.80, 0.97) 0.00% Low 0.95   
Asia 2 0.77 (0.59, 1.00) 0.00% Low 0.42   
Menopausal status       0.18 0.26
Pre- 2 0.80 (0.43,1.48) 0.00% Low 0.42   
Post- 5 0.85 (0.75.0.97) 0.00% Low 0.33   
Combined 5 0.96 (0.80, 1.14) 23.30% Low 0.27   
Exposure assessment       0.87 0.99
Serum PL biomarker 5 0.86 (0.63, 1.20) 21.50% Low 0.27   
Diet 6 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 17.30% Low 0.30   
Follow-up duration       0.11 0.08
≤ Average value 6 0.77 (0.46, 0.94) 0.00% Low 0.77   
> Average value 5 0.94 (0.83, 1.06) 19.50% Low 0.21   
Covariates adjusted        
BMI       0.24 0.36
Yes 8 0.91 (0.83, 1.00) 9.90% Low 0.35   
No 3 0.65 (0.39,1.09) 0.00% Low 0.38   
Age of fist childbirth       0.09 0.07
Yes 7 0.87 (0.79, 0.94) 0.00% Low 0.56   
No 4 1.01 (0.70, 1.12) 0.00% Low 0.54   
Age at menarche       0.51 0.54
Yes 6 0.92 (0.85, 0.99) 0.00% Low 0.51   
No 5 0.80 (0.58,1.11) 33.60% Moderate 0.18   
Parity       0.11 0.08
Yes 5 0.94 (0.85, 1.04) 15.90% Low 0.31   
No 6 0.77 (0.63, 0.94) 0.00% Low 0.68   
Reproductive variables       0.65 0.76
Yes 4 0.89 (0.81, 0.98) 0.00% Low 0.73   
No 7 0.89 (0.74, 1.07) 33.70% Moderate 0.16   
Family history of BC       0.30 0.30
Yes 8 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) 31.30% Moderate 0.18   
No 3 0.76 (0.56,1.04) 0.00% Low 0.83   
Hormone user       0.75 0.90
Yes 9 0.89 (0.80, 1.00) 24.50% Low 0.22   
No 2 0.82 (0.50, 1.35) 0.00% Low 0.57   
Alcohol intake       0.32 0.32
Yes 9 0.91 (0.82, 1.00) 0.00% Low 0.26   
No 2 0.72 (0.47, 1.10) 20.60% Low 0.51   
Smoking       0.23 0.28
Yes 4 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) 0.00% Low 0.40   
No 7 0.83 (0.70, 0.98) 8.20% Low 0.37   
Age       0.78 0.99
Yes 6 0.92 (0.82, 1.02) 0.00% Low 0.45   
No 5 0.86 (0.68, 1.10) 34.00% Moderate 0.18   
Educational status       0.16 0.14
Yes 5 0.87 (0.80, 0.96) 0.00% Low 0.59   
No 6 0.96 (0.79, 1.17) 14.70% Low 0.32   
Total energy intake       0.16 0.16
Yes 5 0.87 (0.80, 0.96) 0.00% Low 0.59   
No 6 0.96 (0.79, 1.17) 14.70% Low 0.32   
Physical activity       0.20 0.20
Yes 3 0.81 (0.67, 0.97) 0.00% Low 0.90   
No 8 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 21.50% Low 0.25   
Other drugs or nutrients intake       0.20 0.24
Yes 3 0.81 (0.67, 0.97) 0.00% Low 0.90   
No 8 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 21.50% Low 0.25   
  1. a P: P value for heterogeneity within subgroup.
  2. b P: P value for heterogeneity between subgroups with a meta-regression analysis.
  3. c P: adjusted P value for heterogeneity between subgroups with a permutation test.
  4. N = number of studies.