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Table 1 Characteristics of included prospective studies

From: Ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 274135 adult females from 11 independent prospective studies

Study (nation) Design Population (case/participants) Menopausal status Follow-up duration (years) Exposure Outcomes (RRs, 95% CI) Study quality
Measurement Range (H vs. L)a
Vatten 1993 [18] (Norway) NCC Subjects from serum bank; 87/235; Pre- 5 n-3/n-6: Serum PL, GC (mg/L) 0.36 vs. 0.14 1.0 (0.4, 2.1) Moderate
Chajes 1999 [35] (Sweden) NCC Cardiovascular disease Cohort; 196/388; Combined 2 ~ 11 LC n-3/n-6: Serum PL, GC (%tFC) > 0.68 vs. <0.08 0.88 (0.42,1.86) Moderate
Saadatian-Elahi 2002 [19] (USA) NCC Health university Women cohort; 197/197; Pre- and Post- 4.3 n-3/n-6: Serum PL, GC (%tFC) 4th quantile vs. reference Pre-: 0.60 (0.24, 1.54); High
Post-: 0.42 (0.17, 1.08)
Wirfalt 2002 [36] (Sweden) NCC Malmo Diet and Cancer (MDC) Cohort; 237/673; Post- 3 ~ 8 n-3/n-6: Diet, FFQ (g/day) 0.33 vs. 0.15 0.66 (0.41, 1.08) Moderate
Wakai 2005 [17] (Japan) PC Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC);129/26291 Post- and Combined 7.6 n-6/n-3: Diet, FFQ (% energy) Combined: > 4.61vs. < 3.25 Combined: 1.31 (0.78, 2.19) High
Post-: > 4.59 vs. < 3.21 Post-: 1.30 (0.66, 2.58)
Chajes 2008 [20] (Sweden) NCC Europe Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC); 363/702; Combined. 7.0 n-6/n-3: Serum PL, GC (%tFC) 5th quantile vs. reference 0.76 (0.48, 1.20) Moderate
Takata 2009 [37] (USA) NCC Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial chort study (CARET); 103/309; Post-. 4.4 n-3/n-6: Serum PL, GC (%tFC) > 0.15 vs. < 0.11 0.74 (0.40, 1.36) High
Thiebaut 2009 [33] (France) PC EPIC Cohort; 1650/56007 Combined 8.0 n-6/n-3:Diet, FFQ, (% energy) 14.76 vs. 5.48 0.97 (0.83, 1.14) Moderate
Murff 2011 [16] (China) PC Shanghai Women Health Study cohort (SWHS); 712/72571; Combined 8.0 n-6/n-3: Diet, FFQ, (g/day) 7.64 vs.5.18 1.02 (0.77, 1.34) High
Park 2012 [15] (USA) PC Multiethnic Cohort; 3885/85089; Post- 12 n-6/n-3: Diet, FFQ, (g/1000 kcal) > 9.60 vs. < 7.60 1.10 (0.99, 1.22) High
Sczaniecka 2012 [34] (USA) PC Vitamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort study; 772/30252; Post-. 6.0 n-3/n-6: Diet, FFQ, (g/day) > 0.03 vs. < 0.005 0.84 (0.65, 1.09) High
        
  1. aH vs. L: the highest exposure quantile vs. lowest or reference.
  2. %tFC = percentage of total Fatty Acid; GC = Gas Chromatography; LC n-3 = long chain n-3 PUFAs including EPA, DPA and DHA; NCC = prospective nested case–control study; PC = prospective cohort study; n-3/n-6 = ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; n-6/n-3 = ratio of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; FFQ = food frequency questionnaire; Serum PL = serum phospholipids.