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Table 5 Risk for esophageal cancer in relation to metabolic risk factors stratified for smoking

From: Metabolic risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: a prospective study of 580 000 subjects within the Me-Can project

Smoking status Exposure Adenocarcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma
   RR model 11 RR model 22 Regression calibrated RR3 Interaction4p-value RR model 11 RR model 22 Regression calibrated RR3 Interaction4p-value
Never smoker BMI 1.22 (0.83–1.77) 1.30 (0.87–1.94) 1.28 (0.75–2.19)   0.72 (0.47–1.09) 0.67 (0.43–1.06) 0.61 (0.35–1.07)  
Mid BP 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 1.11 (0.73–1.67) 1.15 (0.52–2.53)   1.23 (0.89–1.70) 1.35 (0.97–1.89) 1.75 (0.93–3.30)  
Glucose 1.19 (0.86–1.65) 1.22 (0.86–1.71) 2.00 (0.55–7.36)   1.03 (0.75–1.43) 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 0.91 (0.25–3.32)  
Cholesterol 0.81 (0.53–1.26) 0.82 (0.50–1.34) 0.82 (0.38–1.18)   0.93 (0.63–1.37) 0.90 (0.59–1.37) 0.84 (0.43–1.65)  
Triglycerides 0.77 (0.49–1.20) 0.71 (0.44–1.17) 0.45 (0.16–1.27)   0.97 (0.66–1.44) 1.07 (0.69–1.65) 1.10 (0.43–2.83)  
Mets 1.07 (0.69–1.65) - 1.10 (0.58–2.08)   0.98 (0.66–1.47) - 0.98 (0.54–1.75)  
Former smoker BMI 1.87 (1.49–2.35) 1.89 (1.44–2.47) 2.14 (1.44–3.18) 0.07 0.91 (0.59–1.40) 0.78 (0.49–1.24) 0.62 (0.35–1.10) 0.59
Mid BP 1.14 (0.83–1.56) 0.96 (0.68–1.36) 0.91 (0.47–1.77) 0.28 1.52 (1.09–2.11) 1.53 (1.09–2.16) 1.93 (0.99–3.75) 0.47
Glucose 0.86 (0.61–1.23) 0.73 (0.51–1.06) 0.43 (0.11–1.64) 0.46 1.30 (0.98–1.72) 1.27 (0.94–1.71) 2.80 (0.99–7.93) 0.14
Cholesterol 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 1.04 (0.72–1.50) 1.01 (0.56–1.80) 0.14 1.14 (0.77–1.69) 1.12 (0.73–1.70) 1.21 (0.61–2.41) 0.56
Triglycerides 1.54 (1.11–2.13) 1.28 (0.88–1.85) 1.96 (0.87–4.39) 0.01 1.02 (0.68–1.52) 0.92 (0.59–1.45) 0.73 (0.28–1.94) 0.68
MetS 1.60 (1.16–2.21) - 1.99 (1.25–3.16) 0.08 1.39 (0.94–2.04) - 1.61 (0.92–2.82) 0.21
Current smoker BMI 1.54 (1.22–1.94) 1.52 (1.18–1.95) 1.53 (1.09–2.16) 0.35 0.63 (0.52–0.77) 0.55 (0.45–0.68) 0.46 (0.35–0.61) 0.41
Mid BP 1.13 (0.87–1.48) 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 1.03 (0.59–1.80) 0.71 1.26 (1.07–1.48) 1.39 (1.18–1.63) 1.75 (1.28–2.38) 0.76
Glucose 1.03 (0.77–1.36) 0.95 (0.71–1.29) 0.96 (0.32–2.88) 0.97 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 1.26 (0.67–2.37) 0.83
Cholesterol 1.03 (0.78–1.35) 0.93 (0.69–1.27) 0.89 (0.54–1.47) 0.36 1.09 (0.92–1.29) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 1.14 (0.84–1.53) 0.44
Triglycerides 1.22 (0.93–1.61) 1.09 (0.80–1.49) 1.24 (0.63–2.43) 0.07 1.00 (0.83–1.19) 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.09 (0.70–1.69) 0.90
  MetS 1.37 (1.04–1.81) - 1.58 (1.05–2.37) 0.38 1.01 (0.84–1.22) - 1.02 (0.78–1.34) 0.96
  1. Relative risk for esophageal cancer in relation to continuous z-score of metabolic factors and the composite metabolic syndrome score, stratified for smoking status.
  2. 1Relative risk from Cox regression models with attained age as time scale, stratified by cohort and categories of birth year within the model, adjusted for sex and age at baseline.
  3. 2As model 1 but in addition adjusted for all metabolic factors.
  4. 3Adjusted as model 2. Corrected by regression calibration, see text.
  5. 4Each metabolic factor multiplied by smoking status (current or former) was entered in the analysis as an interaction term. Adjusted as model.
  6. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, MetS metabolic syndrome, BMI body mass index, Mid BP mid blood pressure.