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Table 4 Risk for esophageal cancer in relation to clinical categories of obesity and hypertension

From: Metabolic risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: a prospective study of 580 000 subjects within the Me-Can project

Exposure Category Adenocarcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma
   Crude RR Adjusted RR1 Crude RR Adjusted RR2
BMI in WHO categories ≤ 18.4 - - 1.68 (0.62–4.56) 1.54 (0.56–4.19)
18.5–25.0 Reference Reference Reference Reference
25.0–29.9 2.53 (1.66–3.88) 2.32 (1.51–3.57) 0.65 (0.47–0.90) 0.67 (0.49–0.93)
≥ 30 2.69 (1.50–4.85) 3.29 (1.82–5.95) 0.39 (0.19–0.77) 0.47 (0.24–0.94)
≥ 25 2.57 (1.70–3.88) 2.47 (1.63–3.74) 0.60 (0.44–0.82) 0.64 (0.47–0.87)
ESH/ESC hypertension criteria3 Normal Reference Reference Reference Reference
Grade 1 1.13 (0.74–1.72) 0.90 (0.59–1.32) 1.34 (0.96–1.87) 1.61 (1.15–2.26)
Grade 2 1.47 (0.84–2.57) 1.11 (0.63–1.96) 1.42 (0.89–2.26) 1.98 (1.23–3.17)
Grade 3 0.93 (0.33–2.62) 0.66 (0.23–1.87) 1.96 (1.10–3.59) 2.95 (1.62–5.37)
Grade 1–3 1.19 (0.81–1.74) 0.93 (0.63–1.37) 1.41 (1.04–1.91) 1.77 (1.30–2.42)
  Ptrend 0.39 0.72 0.01 <0.0001
  1. Relative risks with 95% confidence interval for incident esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma related to BMI and blood pressure categorized in clinical criteria for obesity and hypertension. All analyses were stratified by study cohort and birth-year category.
  2. 1Adjusted for sex, age at baseline (continuous) and smoking status.
  3. 2Adjusted for sex, age at baseline (continuous), smoking status and BMI (continuous).
  4. 3European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) criteria for hypertension: Normal blood pressure (BP): systolic BP < 140 and diastolic BP < 90. Grade I hypertension: systolic BP 140–159 or diastolic BP 90–99, grade II: systolic BP = 160–179 or diastolic BP = 100–109 and grade III: systolic BP ≥ 180 or diastolic BP ≥ 110.
  5. Abbreviations: RR relative risk, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index, WHO World Health Organization, ESH European Society of Hypertension, ESC European Society of Cardiology.