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Table 4 Characteristics of prospective cohort studies evaluating sugar consumption and ovarian cancer risk

From: Sugary food and beverage consumption and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case–control study

Reference Location Cases/cohort size (n) Dietary assessment Time frame of dietary assessment Sugar variables Covariates Effect modifiers Results
Kushi et al., 1999 [7] Iowa (United States) 139/29,083 FFQ (126 items), 24-hour dietary recall among a subset Current intake at baseline “Breads, cereals, starches”, sweets age, energy intake, # of live births, age at menopause, family history of ovarian cancer in a 1st-degree relative, hysterectomy/unilateral oophorectomy status, WHR, physical activity, pack-years smoked, educational None - association: breads, cereals, starches + association: sweets
Silvera et al., 2007 [34] Canada 264/48776 FFQ (86 items) Current intake at baseline Total sugar age, BMI, alcohol intake, HRT use, OC use, parity, age at menarche, menopausal status, energy intake, physical activity, fiber intake, study center, treatment allocation Menopausal status, smoking history, age at menarche, HRT use, alcohol intake, parity No association: total sugar +association: strong, suggested association with sugar among postmenopausal women No effect modification by smoking history, age at menarche, HRT use, alcohol intake, parity
Tasevska et al., 2012 [12] 8 states in USA (CA, FL, LA, NJ, NC, MI, GA, PA) 457/179,990 FFQ, DHQ (124 items) 1 year prior to index date Total sugars, added sugar, sucrose, total fructose, added sucrose, added fructose age, BMI, family history of cancer, marital status, smoking status and pack-years smoked, race, education, physical activity, energy intake, alcohol intake HRT - association: total sugars, added sugars, total fructose, sucrose, added sucrose, added fructose; no modification by HRT
  1. Abbreviations: FFQ- food frequency questionnaire, DHQ- diet history questionnaire, BMI- body mass index, HRT- hormone replacement therapy, ERT- unopposed estrogen replacement therapy, OC- oral contraceptives, WHR- waist-to-hip ratio, “+ association” - positive association, “- association”- negative association.