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Table 5 Hazard ratios for bladder cancer with regards to diabetes duration and medications used for diabetic control in diabetic men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

From: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

  All ages Age ≥60 years
HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
Diabetes duration       
  1-3 years vs. <1 year 0.992 (0.637, 1.546) 0.9731 1.117 (0.680, 1.835) 0.6610
  3-5 years vs. <1 year 0.735 (0.471, 1.147) 0.1748 0.893 (0.546, 1.461) 0.6534
  ≥5 years vs. <1 year 0.679 (0.449, 1.027) 0.0664 0.784 (0.494, 1.246) 0.3035
Medications for diabetic control       
  Rosiglitazone (Yes vs. No) 1.124 (0.923, 1.369) 0.2443 1.115 (0.908, 1.370) 0.2994
  Pioglitazone (Yes vs. No) 1.023 (0.752, 1.393) 0.8846 1.066 (0.774, 1.467) 0.6959
  Sulfonylurea (Yes vs. No) 0.939 (0.742, 1.190) 0.6035 0.940 (0.734, 1.205) 0.6252
  Meglitinide (Yes vs. No) 1.133 (0.934, 1.375) 0.2057 1.170 (0.958, 1.428) 0.1239
  Metformin (Yes vs. No) 0.719 (0.590, 0.875) 0.0010 0.742 (0.604, 0.912) 0.0046
  Acarbose (Yes vs. No) 1.045 (0.866, 1.261) 0.6471 1.034 (0.850, 1.258) 0.7407
  Insulin (Yes vs. No) 0.893 (0.738, 1.081) 0.3465 0.880 (0.721, 1.073) 0.2062
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval.
  2. Models are adjusted for all variables in Table 1 and for potential detection examinations in Table 3.