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Table 4 Hazard ratios for bladder cancer with regards to benign prostatic hyperplasia

From: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

BPH All ages Age ≥60 years
HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
All patients       
   N = 547584    N = 273648  
I. BPH by status       
 1. BPH/procedures (−) or (+) 1.794 (1.572, 2.047) <0.0001 1.842 (1.600, 2.121) <0.0001
 2. BPH/procedures (−) 1.709 (1.492, 1.958) <0.0001 1.753 (1.517, 2.027) <0.0001
  BPH/procedures (+) 2.459 (1.946, 3.109) <0.0001 2.500 (1.960, 3.189) <0.0001
II. BPH by duration       
  <1 year 1.750 (1.430, 1.605) <0.0001 1.769 (1.425, 2.195) <0.0001
  1-3 years 1.844 (1.543, 2.203) <0.0001 1.897 (1.571, 2.291) <0.0001
  3-5 years 2.011 (1.680, 2.406) <0.0001 2.125 (1.760, 2.566) <0.0001
  ≥5 years 1.605 (1.341, 1.921) <0.0001 1.623 (1.343, 1.962) <0.0001
Sensitivity analyses       
Excluding BPH with surgical procedure    
   N = 540958    N = 267656  
I. BPH by status 1.740 (1.515, 1.740) <0.0001 1.797 (1.549, 2.084) <0.0001
II. BPH by duration       
  <1 year 1.943 (1.557, 2.425) <0.0001 1.975 (1.556, 2.507) <0.0001
  1-3 years 1.756 (1.459, 2.112) <0.0001 1.813 (1.490, 2.207) <0.0001
  3-5 years 1.913 (1.589, 2.304) <0.0001 2.025 (1.666, 2.462) <0.0001
  ≥5 years 1.474 (1.220, 1.780) <0.0001 1.506 (1.233, 1.839) <0.0001
Excluding BPH without surgical procedure    
   N = 469058    N = 207696  
I. BPH by status 2.525 (1.984, 3.212) <0.0001 2.671 (2.078, 3.433) <0.0001
II. BPH by duration       
  <1 year 1.200 (0.760, 1.896) 0.4342 1.275 (0.796, 2.041) 0.3123
  1-3 years 3.983 (2.477, 6.404) <0.0001 4.274 (2.614, 6.988) <0.0001
  3-5 years 4.648 (2.818, 7.668) <0.0001 5.246 (3.163, 8.701) <0.0001
  ≥5 years 3.837 (2.588, 5.689) <0.0001 3.984 (2.621, 6.057) <0.0001
  1. BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval.
  2. Models are adjusted for all variables in Table 1 and for potential detection examinations in Table 3.
  3. The referent group in the models is patients without BPH.