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Table 3 Comparison of the frequency of visits to urologists and laboratory examinations potentially leading to diagnosis of bladder cancer in patients with and without benign prostatic hyperplasia

From: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

Variables Benign prostatic hyperplasia P value
No Yes
n % n %
All ages      
Visits to urologists      
  No 427531 91.85 59460 72.42 <0.0001
 Yes 37954 8.15 22639 27.58  
Laboratory examinations*      
 No 119766 25.73 10354 12.61 <0.0001
 Yes 345719 74.27 71745 87.39  
Any of the above      
 No 116896 25.11 9309 11.34 <0.0001
 Yes 348589 74.89 72790 88.66  
Age ≥60 years      
Visits to urologists      
 No 185836 90.94 50441 72.80 <0.0001
 Yes 18522 9.06 18849 27.20  
Laboratory examinations*      
 No 47633 23.31 8460 12.21 <0.0001
 Yes 156725 76.69 60830 87.79  
Any of the above      
 No 46463 22.74 7663 11.06 <0.0001
 Yes 157895 77.26 61627 88.94  
  1. *Laboratory examinations include serum tumor markers, urine cytology, cystoscopy, urinalysis and bladder ultrasonography.