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Table 2 Incidence of bladder cancer with regards to benign prostatic hyperplasia by status or duration with and without surgical procedures

From: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a significant risk factor for bladder cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study using the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

BPH status/duration Case number n of Incident bladder cancer % Person-years Incidence rate
(per 100,000 person-years)
All ages      
I. BPH by status      
 No BPH 462432 1127 0.24 1625241.83 69.34
 BPH 85152 742 0.87 286736.17 258.77
 BPH/procedures (−) 78526 658 0.84 263103.83 250.09
 BPH/procedures (+) 6626 84 1.27 23632.33 355.45
II. BPH by duration      
 All BPH patients      
  <1 year 16163 126 0.78 54808.83 229.89
  1-3 years 23955 199 0.83 81308.00 244.75
  3-5 years 20649 203 0.98 69799.92 290.83
  ≥5 years 24385 214 0.88 80819.42 264.79
 BPH/procedures (−)      
  <1 year 12421 107 0.86 41550.17 257.52
  1-3 years 23005 180 0.78 77899.17 231.07
  3-5 years 19952 186 0.93 67255.08 276.56
  ≥5 years 23148 185 0.80 76399.42 242.15
 BPH/procedures (+)      
  <1 year 3742 19 0.51 13258.67 143.30
  1-3 years 950 19 2.00 3408.83 557.38
  3-5 years 697 17 2.44 2544.83 668.02
  ≥5 years 1237 29 2.34 4420.00 656.11
Age ≥60 years      
I. BPH by status      
 No BPH 201704 779 0.39 685559.17 113.63
 BPH 71944 684 0.95 238880.17 286.34
 BPH/procedures (−) 65952 605 0.92 217633.42 277.99
 BPH/procedures (+) 5992 79 1.32 21246.75 371.82
II. BPH by duration      
 All BPH patients      
  <1 year 12864 111 0.86 42903.33 258.72
  1-3 years 19405 182 0.94 64903.08 280.42
  3-5 years 17536 193 1.10 58425.00 330.34
  ≥5 years 22139 198 0.89 72648.75 272.54
 BPH/procedures (−)      
  <1 year 9567 93 0.97 31307.58 297.05
  1-3 years 18529 164 0.89 61772.17 265.49
  3-5 years 16885 176 1.04 56058.00 313.96
  ≥5 years 20971 172 0.82 68495.67 251.11
 BPH/procedures (+)      
  <1 year 3297 18 0.55 11595.75 155.23
  1-3 years 876 18 2.05 3130.92 574.91
  3-5 years 651 17 2.61 2367.00 718.21
  ≥5 years 1168 26 2.23 4153.08 626.04
  1. BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval.