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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of 33 patients with brain metastases from HCC

From: Brain metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma: the role of surgery as a prognostic factor

Characteristic No. of patients (%)
HCC characteristics  
Age in years at diagnosis of brain metastasis; median (range) 62 (23-80yrs)
Sex  
 Male 30 (91%)
 Female 3 (9%)
Time in months from diagnosis of HCC to brain metastases; median (range) 18.3 (0.5-75mos)
ECOG performance status  
 ≤2 21 (64%)
 ≥3 12 (36%)
RPA class I 2 (6%)
 II 27 (82%)
 III 4 (12%)
Child-Pugh classification  
 A 20 (61%)
 B 11 (33%)
 C 2 (6%)
AFP (ng/ml)  
 ≤400 18 (55%)
 >400 10 (30%)
 unknown 5 (15%)
Etiology  
 Hepatitis B 25 (76%)
 Hepatitis C 3 (9%)
 Alcoholic 4 (12%)
 Idiopathic 1 (3%)
Number of tumor nodules  
 1 3 (9%)
 2-3 5 (15%)
 ≥4 25 (76%)
Largest tumor size (cm)  
 <2 4 (12%)
 2-5 14 (43%)
 6-10 12 (36%)
 >10 3 (9%)
Tumor type  
 Well-defined 20 (61%)
 Ill-defined 13 (39%)
Main portal vein thrombosis  
 Absent 18 (55%)
 Present 15 (45%)
Previous treatment  
 Hepatic resection 5 (15%)
 TACE 27 (82%)
 RFA 4 (12%)
 Chemotherapy (Sorafenib) 10 (30%)
 Radiotherapy 10 (30%)
Site of extracranial metastases  
 Lung 24 (73%)
 Bone 6 (18%)
 Lymph node 8 (24%)
 Adrenal gland 2 (6%)
 Skin 1 (3%)
 None 6 (18%)
Brain metastasis characteristics  
Symptoms/signs  
 Headache 18 (55%)
 Motor disturbance 12 (36%)
 Mental status changes 8 (24%)
 Visual disturbance 5 (15%)
 Dizziness 4 (12%)
 Non-neurologic symptom 1 (3%)
Number of lesions  
 Single 17 (52%)
 Multiple 16 (48%)
Intratumoral hemorrhage  
 Yes 17 (52%)
 No 16 (48%)
Location of brain metastases  
 Frontal 5 (15%)
 Parietal 6 (18%)
 Occipital 2 (6%)
 Temporal 1 (3%)
 Cerebellar 1 (3%)
 Cavernous sinus 1 (3%)
 Basal ganglia 1 (3%)
 Multiple locations 16 (48%)
Treatment modalities  
 Resection alone 4 (12%)
 Resection + WBRT 6 (18%)
 GKS alone 11 (33%)
 GKS + WBRT 2 (6%)
 WBRT alone 4 (12%)
 Palliative (Steroid alone) 6 (18%)