Functional analyses of GAD1 knockdown cells. a Invasiveness assay of the shGAD1 cells. After crystal violet staining, the numbers of cells invading the pores is counted (×100 magnification). The numbers penetrating the shGAD1 cells are significantly (*P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U test) greater compared with mock cells. Scale bars, 100 μm. b Migratory assay of shGAD1 cells. The wound area has decreased significantly (*P < 0.05, Mann–Whitney U test) in the culture of mock cells after 8 hr, whereas there is still a gap in the shGAD1 cells. Original magnification, ×100. Scale bars, 100 μm.