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Table 2 Relative risk of cancer, including any cancer and tumor-specific cancers

From: Cardiopulmonary bypass has a modest association with cancer progression: a retrospective cohort study

  CABG patientsa(n=43,347)
  Pumpb(n=33,357) Off Pump (n=9,900) Unadjusted Adjustedc
  n %d n %d RRe (95% CI) p-value RRe (95% CI) p-value
Patients ≥1 primary cancerf 2,388 7.2% 572 5.8%       
Patients w/tumor-specific cancersg           
• Lung and bronchus 369 1.1% 75 0.8% 1.24 (0.94-1.62) 0.125 1.36 (1.02- 1.81) 0.034
• Prostate 609 1.8% 137 1.4% 1.13 (0.85-1.51) 0.401 1.25 (0.92-1.68) 0.149
• Pancreas 63 0.2% 18 0.2% 0.86 (0.57-1.32) 0.495 0.95 (0.62-1.47) 0.820
• Stomach 65 0.2% 23 0.2% 0.73 (0.43-1.22) 0.226 0.80 (0.48-1.35) 0.404
• Breast 100 0.3% 30 0.3% 0.84 (0.52-1.35) 0.467 0.92 (0.57-1.51) 0.752
• Colon/rectum 338 1.0% 79 0.8% 1.11 (0.90-1.38) 0.343 1.22 (0.98-1.53) 0.083
• Kidney/renal pelvis 93 0.3% 25 0.3% 0.95 (0.75-1.21) 0.676 1.05 (0.83- 1.32) 0.698
• Urinary bladder 197 0.6% 45 0.5% 1.07 (0.79-1.45) 0.672 1.18 (0.84-1.66) 0.339
• Corpus uterus 31 0.1% 3 0.0% *** ********* **** *** ********* ****
• Non-hodgkin lymphoma 90 0.3% 23 0.2% 0.94 (0.65-1.35) 0.721 1.03 (0.71- 1.50) 0.874
• Skin melanoma 116 0.3% 19 0.2% 1.50 (0.99-2.27) 0.053 1.66 (1.08- 2.55) 0.022
  1. afinal dataset after asymmetric trimming of the propensity score model to improve overlap of the propensity score distributions for patients with and without CPB CABG surgery. The final dataset includes 43,347 patients or 90% of the original dataset.
  2. bincludes CABG patients with ≥1 on-pump procedure prior to incident cancer.
  3. cmodel adjusted for age at time of surgery, gender, race, year of surgery, use of blood products, and propensity score.
  4. d%=number of patients with tumor-specific cancer/ total number in group*100.
  5. erisk ratio for pump/off-pump modeled using Cox proportional hazards model with a robust covariance matrix that accounted for survival times for individuals within a hospital. For patients with multiple primaries, other cancers are censored at the time of occurrence. Competing risk model with regression of exposure on cause-specific hazard.
  6. fmultiple primary tumor-specific cancers (e.g. prostate, colorectal) may have been reported for any given patient. For the relative risk of any cancer, the first cancer reported for patients with multiple primaries was used in the time to event analysis.
  7. gfor tumor-specific cancers, other cancers were censored at the time of diagnosis.
  8. *results for cancers with cell count ≤5 were suppressed to as a way to ensure statistical reliability and protect patient confidentiality.
  9. CABG=coronary artery bypass graf, CPB=cardiopulmonary bypass (or “pump” procedure).