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Table 1 Clinicopathologic features of renal cell carcinoma extending into the venous system stratified by level of tumor thrombus

From: Impacts of clinicopathologic and operative factors on short-term and long-term survival in renal cell carcinoma with venous tumor thrombus extension: a multi-institutional retrospective study in Japan

  Level of tumor thrombus Statistical significance (chi-square test or Mann–Whitney U test)
Variables Intra-renal vein Infrahepatic IVC Suprahepatic IVC Intrapericardial IVC/ intracardiac extension Unknown Total
n 148 101 20 11 8 292  
Gender (n)
Male 108 80 15 7 7 217 n.s.
Female 44 21 5 4 1 75  
Age (years)
Mean ± S.D. 63.7 ± 10.8 60.8 ± 10.4 62.3 ± 11.8 60.6 ± 12.5 61.8 ± 11.4 62.4 ± 10.8 n.s.
Performance status (n)
0 105 73 11 5 3 197 n.s.
1 18 11 6 2 2 39
2 10 2 1 1 0 14
3 2 4 0 1 0 7
Unknown 17 11 2 2 3 35  
ESR (mm)
Mean ± S.D. 56.5 ± 44.1 65.4 ± 43.7 81.7 ± 38.6 43.8 ± 57.2 93.3 ± 70.6 62.0 ± 44.6 p < 0.05; intra-renal vein vs. suprahepatic IVC
CRP (ng/ml)
Mean ± S.D. 3.7 ± 4.9 4.0 ± 5.7 5.3 ± 5.6 1.7 ± 1.4 7.2 ± 10.0 3.9 ± 5.4 n.s.
IAP (ug/ml)
Mean ± S.D. 796.9 ± 420.5 794.4 ± 328.2 1020.4 ± 438.7 828.2 ± 372.9 789 ± 475 813.2 ± 391.4 p < 0.05; intra-renal vein, infrahepatic IVC vs. suprahepatic IVC
Tumor size classification (n)
<4 cm 17 5 1 2 0 25 n.s.
4-7 cm 40 22 5 4 2 73
>7 cm 90 70 11 4 4 179
Unknown 5 4 3 1 2 15  
Tumor location (n)
Right 72 67 12 9 5 165 n.s.
Left 76 33 8 2 1 120
Bilateral 2 1 0 0 0 3
Missing data 2 0 0 0 2 4  
Perinephric fat invasion (n)
No 56 38 12 5 3 114 n.s.
Yes 21 17 3 1 1 43
Unknown 75 46 5 5 4 135  
Regional lymph node involvement (n)
No 74 29 10 4 1 118 n.s.
Yes 27 23 3 2 6 61
Unknown 51 49 7 5 1 113  
Distant metastases (n)
No 100 60 12 8 3 183 n.s.
Yes 47 32 4 3 5 91
Unknown 5 9 4 0 0 18  
Tumor nuclear grade (n)
G1 15 9 2 1 0 27 n.s.
G2 103 52 14 6 4 179
G3 29 38 4 3 1 75
Unknown 5 2 0 1 3 11  
Histopathologic category (n)
Clear cell 112 67 17 7 3 206 n.s.
Papillary, chromophobe, others 28 29 3 4 3 67
Spindle, sarcomatoid 12 5 0 0 2 19