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Table 1 Characteristics, comorbidities, and medication use among cases and controls

From: Association of thiazolidinediones with gastric cancer in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based case–control study

Variables Cases Controls P value
N = 357 % N = 1,428 %
Age at DM   0.483
  30-60 69 15.90 300 17.28  
  ≥60 288 66.36 1,128 64.98
Sex   1.000
  Male 215 49.54 568 32.72  
  Female 142 32.72 860 49.54
Peptic ulcer history 172 39.63 334 19.24 <0.001
Ulcer bleeding history 61 14.06 156 8.99 <0.001
HP eradication rate 33 7.60 139 8.01 0.779
Comorbidities  
  CAD 120 27.65 603 34.74 0.003
  CVD 84 19.35 466 26.84 <0.001
  CLD 78 17.97 337 19.41 0.484
  COPD 98 22.58 465 26.79 0.063
  CKD 77 17.74 431 24.83 0.001
  GERD or EE 21 4.84 91 5.24 0.733
Medications  
  Pioglitazone 25 5.76 154 8.87 0.033
  Rosiglitazone 34 7.83 211 12.15 0.010
  Metformin 236 54.38 990 57.03 0.241
  Sulfonylurea 256 58.99 1,022 58.87 0.958
  Glucosidase inhibitors 36 8.29 293 16.88 <0.001
  Meglitinides (Glinides) 35 8.06 241 13.88 <0.001
  DPP-4 inhibitors 1 0.23 85 4.90 <0.001
  Insulin 37 8.53 265 15.26 <0.001
  Statins 86 19.82 531 30.59 <0.001
  ARBs 88 20.28 534 30.76 <0.001
  ACE inhibitors 126 29.03 560 32.26 0.173
  Aspirin 118 27.19 610 35.14 <0.001
  COX-2 inhibitors 27 6.22 189 10.89 0.003
  NSAIDs 74 17.05 432 24.88 <0.001
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, HP Helicobacter pylori, CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebral vascular disease, CLD chronic liver disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease, EE erosive esophagitis, DPP-4 inhibitors dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, COX-2 inhibitors cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitors, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. N number.