Tissue sections and staining techniques. A, H&E. Nuclei stained in blue (Hematoxylin); Eosin stains all other structures in various shades of pink. This staining shows the morphological features of the tissue and is used by uropathologists to diagnose cancer and grade its aggressiveness (Gleason score). B, p63/AMACR. p63 is a protein present in the basal cells of benign glands and appears brown while AMACR protein is present in the cytoplasm of cancer cells and appears red. This staining is used to confirm the diagnosis when H&E is not clear. C, TRF for AR. AR is present in cell nuclei and its expression may be related to the status of the disease. AR was detected through TRF, which allows for quantification of the fluorescence signal. Modalities in A, B, C are used in Experiment 1 and 2. D, schematics of a stack of consecutive tissue sections stained with H&E, such as the one used in experiment 3. The images size is typically 1000x1000 pixels.