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Table 2 Comparison of tumor characteristics and treatment modalities between cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and patients with HCC associated with hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and alcohol

From: Clinical features and outcome of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma compared to those of viral and alcoholic hepatocellular carcinoma

  Cryptogenic HCC (n = 35) HBV-HCC * p HCV-HCC **p ALC-HCC ***p
   (n = 321)   (n = 69)   (n = 55)  
AFP (IU/mL)    0.036   0.938   0.116
<20 19 (57.6) 108 (34.4)   33 (53.2)   35 (70.0)  
20 ~ 200 4 (12.1) 78 (24.8)   12 (19.4)   8 (16.0)  
>200 10 (30.3) 128 (40.8)   17 (27.4)   7 (14.0)  
PVT 4 (11.4) 89 (27.7) 0.037 22 (31.9) 0.023 10 (18.2) 0.389
Extrahepatic metastasis 1 (2.9) 19 (5.9) 0.706 5 (7.2) 0.661 3 (5.5) 0.560
TNM stage    0.361   0.889   0.385
I 16 (45.7) 121 (37.7)   34 (49.3)   15 (27.3)  
II 5 (14.3) 57 (17.8)   10 (14.5)   20 (36.4)  
III 13 (37.1) 122 (38.0)   20 (29.0)   17 (30.9)  
IV 1 (2.9) 21 (6.5)   5 (7.2)   3 (5.5)  
BCLC stage    0.120   0.380   0.120
A 18 (51.4) 148 (46.1)   38 (55.1)   23 (41.8)  
B 11 (31.4) 65 (20.2)   8 (11.6)   15 (27.3)  
C 6 (17.1) 94 (29.3)   20 (29.0)   13 (23.6)  
D 0 (0) 14 (4.4)   3 (4.3)   4 (7.3)  
HCC nodules    0.026   0.020   0.002
1 26 (74.3) 171 (53.3)   34 (49.3)   20 (36.4)  
2 ~ 3 4 (11.4) 63 (19.6)   14 (20.3)   17 (30.9)  
≥4 5 (14.3) 87 (27.1)   21 (30.4)   18 (32.7)  
Largest tumor size    0.536   0.517   0.940
<2cm 10 (28.6) 73 (22.7)   27 (39.1)   15 (27.3)  
2 ~ 5cm 12 (34.3) 120 (37.4)   17 (24.6)   21 (38.2)  
>5cm 13 (37.1) 128 (39.9)   25 (36.2)   19 (34.5)  
Treatment modality        
Resection 4 (11.4) 45 (14.0) 0.801 7 (10.1) 0.841 8 (14.5) 0.672
RFA 9 (25.7) 111 (34.6) 0.349 28 (40.6) 0.135 15 (27.3) 0.871
TACE 28 (80.0) 262 (81.6) 0.820 54 (78.3) 0.837 46 (83.6) 0.660
PEI 1 (2.9) 10 (3.1) 1.000 2 (2.9) 1.000 1 (1.8) 1.000
Systemic chemotherapy 2 (5.7) 24 (7.5) 1.000 1 (1.4) 0.261 3 (5.3) 1.000
Sorafenib 3 (8.6) 25 (7.8) 0.747 7 (10.1) 1.000 6 (10.9) 0.719
Liver transplantation 0 (0.0) 6 (1.9%) 1.000 0 (0.0)   1 (1.8%) 1.000
No treatment 2 (5.7) 35 (10.4) 0.558 7 (10.1) 0.714 7 (12.7) 0.473
  1. Data are expressed as the number (%). Values in bold, statistically significant (p < 0.05).
  2. AFP, Alpha-fetoprotein; PVT, Portal vein thrombosis; BCLC, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer; HCC, Hepatocellular carcinoma; RFA, Radiofrequency ablation; TACE, Transarterial chemoembolization; PEI, Percutaneous ethanol injection; HBV-HCC, Hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma; HCV-HCC, Hepatitis C-associated hepatocellular carcinoma; ALC-HCC, Alcohol-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.
  3. *p: Cryptogenic HCC vs. HBV-HCC.
  4. **p: Cryptogenic HCC vs. HCV-HCC.
  5. ***p: Cryptogenic HCC vs. ALC-HCC.