Host iron deficiency activates EMT pathway. (A) The mRNA expression profiles for EMT markers were normalized to the geomean of three housekeeping genes, GAPDH, G6PD, and HPRT1 and expressed as fold changes over the control mice fed 350 ppm Fe diet. (B) Alteration of E-cadherin, Snai1, Twist1, and ferritin proteins in primary tumors of mice fed iron-deficient diet. α-tubulin was used as a loading control. (C) Increased expression of Snai1 in primary tumors of mice fed iron-deficient diet by immunofluorescence. Tumor tissues were stained with normal rabbit IgG (control) or Snai1 antibody (Green) and DPAI (Blue). *: Significantly different from the group of mice fed 350 ppm Fe diet.