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Table 2 Discordant findings of histopathology and DR imaging results

From: Diagnostic accuracy of diffuse reflectance imaging for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant changes in the oral cavity: a feasibility study

Case no Clinical diagnosis Histopathological (microscopic examination) report DR image ratio result
5 Proliferative growth Tumor epithelial cells were seen invading into the underlying connective tissue in the form of cords, islands, strands and nests. The invading cells exhibited features of pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and abnormal mitotic figures. Few keratin pearl formations were evident. Features suggestive of MDSCC. Normal
12 Verrucous growth Breach in the basement membrane was evident and tumor epithelial cells were seen invading into the underlying connective tissue in the form of islands, strands and nests. Keratin pearl formations were few. Tumor epithelial cells showed hyperchromasia, increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio, pleomorphism and abnormal mitotic figures. Features suggestive of MDSCC. Normal
18 Non-specific ulcer The epithelium was hyperchromatic in the basilar one-third region. Dense chronic inflammatory cells were seen within the connective tissue in the ulcerated region. Features suggestive of epithelial hyperplasia with mild dysplasia. Normal
23 Non-healing ulcer Epithelium exhibits no features of dysplasia. Moderate collections of chronic inflammatory cells were seen in the juxta epithelial region. Features suggestive of EHP with no dysplasia. Pre-malignant
36 Ulcerated lesion with keratotic border Epithelium exhibits features of hyperchromasia, increased mitotic figures, increased nuclear; cytoplasmic ratio, increased basilar hyperplasia involving two third of the epithelium. Chronic inflammatory cells were moderately dispersed in the juxta epithelial region. Features suggestive of EHP with moderate dysplasia. Normal
39 Non-specific ulcer Basal and suprabasal cells exhibited hyperplasia and hyperchromasia. The inflammatory cells were chronic and diffusely spread within the connective tissue. Features suggestive of EHP with mild dysplasia. Normal
  1. MDSCC=moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and EHP=epithelial hyperplasia.