Percentual change in angiogenic factors in patients treated with open ablation (CSA
). Panel A: VEGF, B: Tie-2, C: HGF, D: endostatin, E: Ang-1, F: Ang-2, G: Ratio Ang-2: Ang-1, H: Angiostatin. Thermoablation is associated with a pro-angiogenic response as reflected by an increase in serum levels of pro-angiogenic molecules (VEGF, Tie-2, Ang-2 and HGF). The response is comparable in patients with CSA and RFA treated tumors. Baseline values at time point −1 are set at 100%. Time −1 = day of admission; 0 = at the end of operation; 1–4 = postoperative days 1–4.