Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Signaling Pathways. Classical TLR signaling pathways that result in NFκB activation are either MyD88-dependent (A) or MyD88-independent (B). In MyD88-dependent pathways TLR signaling occurs through the IRAK4/ IRAK1 complex, while in MyD88-independent pathways TLRs signal through TICAM1. TRAF6 then signals to the IKK complex through MAP3K7, which finally leads to NFκB activation. MyD88-independent signaling pathways can also result in the activation of IRF3 or IRF7. Genes assayed by this study are bolded and italicized. This figure was adapted from the KEGG “Toll-like receptor signaling pathway” (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/pathway/hsa/hsa04620.html).