Effect of bethanechol treatment on tumor gene expression and interstitial inflammation. A. Expression of muscarinic receptor mRNAs (Chrm1, 3 and 5) in tumors from control and bethanechol-treated mice. B. Expression of Egfr, Myc and Ccnd1 in tumors from each treatment group. C. Expression of Hif1α and Cox2 in tumors from each treatment group. QPCR was performed as described in Materials and Methods. Results are expressed as mean ± SE from 5 samples from each group. D. Interstitial inflammation scores of control and bethanechol-treated normal mucosa and tumors (see Materials and Methods). Results are expressed as mean ± SE.