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Table 3 Proportion of respondents rating “being a burden to others” as 1 st or 2 nd most concerning problem (crude percentages by variables of interest)

From: ‘Burden to others’ as a public concern in advanced cancer: a comparative survey in seven European countries

  England Flanders Germany Italy Netherlands Portugal Spain All countries
  n = 1351 n = 1269 n = 1363 n = 1352 n = 1356 n = 1286 n = 1367 n = 9344
Age   ** *   **   ** *
 Mean age of people who are concerned of being a burden (vs. others) 54.1 vs. 53.5 54.0 vs 51.3 48.1 vs 46.1 48.7 vs 47.3 56.4 vs 53.3 49.3 vs 48.7 48.7 vs 46.2 50.7 vs. 49.8
 Age bands   ** *   **   * *
  16–29 52.8% 20.7% 42.7% 47.2% 23.0% 39.6% 57.7% 43.9%
  30–39 52.7% 16.2% 39.1% 56.3% 19.7% 42.4% 58.0% 42.8%
  40–49 51.4% 22.1% 38.2% 54.5% 18.7% 37.6% 62.4% 40.2%
  50–59 47.3% 28.6% 45.5% 50.2% 24.8% 42.9% 63.0% 42.6%
  60–69 50.2% 27.8% 48.1% 60.6% 26.8% 41.4% 64.0% 44.1%
  70+ 57.5% 31.1% 48.7% 52.5% 33.0% 44.1% 69.4% 48.1%
Gender    **      *
 Male 53.8% 26.2% 47.7% 53.1% 24.0% 44.4% 63.6% 44.7%
 Female 50.2% 26.8% 39.2% 52.1% 25.0% 40.6% 60.7% 42.5%
Living arrangements *      *   **
 Living alone 53.4% 26.1% 43.1% 52.7% 24.7% 31.9% 61.3% 43.9%
 Living with others 45.6% 28.2% 41.3% 50.0% 24.9% 42.9% 63.4% 39.7%
Urbanisation level         **
 Big city or suburbs/outskirts 53.6% 25.8% 41.3% 55.5% 22.9% 43.3% 61.6% 43.6%
 Town or small city 51.7% 30.0% 40.9% 50.2% 24.2% 39.8% 61.7% 45.8%
 Country village 47.5% 24.9% 46.0% 54.6% 24.8% 41.1% 62.2% 40.9%
 Farm or home in countryside 53.1% 29.7% 50.0% 31.3% 31.6% 38.8% 56.5% 39.4%
Marital status *       **  
 Married or with partner 54.4% 25.9% 43.6% 54.1% 24.2% 43.2% 64.4% 43.6%
 Divorced or separated 47.0% 34.7% 43.4% 52.5% 28.0% 36.8% 59.4% 43.3%
 Widowed 52.5% 29.8% 50.0% 55.8% 31.3% 35.6% 66.3% 45.6%
 Single 44.0% 22.9% 37.7% 46.8% 20.4% 41.4% 53.1% 40.9%
Religion         **
 Yes 51.3% 28.2% 42.3% 52.4% 22.9% 41.1% 60.9% 44.5%
 No 51.9% 25.2% 43.3% 51.8% 26.1% 44.6% 63.3% 40.9%
Education   *       **
 Less than primary education 52.8% 16.0% 0% 66.7% 23.8% 36.4% 60.7% 49.8%
 Primary to secondary education 53.2% 23.9% 43.6% 53.7% 25.3% 41.0% 64.1% 43.9%
 Post secondary to tertiary education 49.0% 29.1% 41.6% 48.8% 23.8% 44.1% 57.9% 41.2%
Activities in last seven days         
 Paid work      *    **
  Yes 53.3% 25.8% 42.2% 51.4% 21.9% 42.2% 61.5% 41.8%
  No 50.1% 27.5% 43.3% 53.1% 28.0% 41.3% 61.7% 44.6%
 In education         
  Yes 50.6% 24.2% 39.8% 46.6% 33.3% 39.8% 56.6% 42.6%
  No 51.7% 26.8% 43.0% 53.0% 24.2% 41.9% 62.3% 43.3%
 Retired         
  Yes 51.2% 29.5% 46.0% 55.6% 28.5% 40.7% 63.9% 44.5%
  No 51.8% 25.5% 41.7% 51.3% 23.5% 42.1% 61.1% 42.8%
Financial hardship   *       **
 Living comfortably on present income 50.8% 29.0% 42.3% 50.4% 26.2% 43.5% 60.1% 40.8%
 Coping on present income 53.8% 24.5% 43.1% 55.8% 23.0% 43.3% 64.8% 45.6%
 Difficult on present income 46.2% 17.2% 46.4% 48.2% 17.5% 38.4% 57.1% 43.4%
 Very difficult on present income 54.3% 0% 37.5% 31.6% 25.0% 38.1% 55.7% 42.6%
Health         
 Very good 52.2% 28.8% 43.4% 46.1% 25.3% 44.2% 59.6% 42.6%
 Good 52.5% 24.9% 41.2% 54.3% 25.0% 41.1% 63.3% 42.4%
 Fair 46.2% 25.0% 47.5% 54.3% 25.4% 41.3% 62.0% 45.6%
 Bad 54.3% 33.3% 39.2% 50.0% 11.9% 50.0% 58.1% 43.8%
 Very bad 28.6% 33.3% 0% 66.7% 25.0% 29.4% 28.6% 28.3%
Experience of illness, death and dying         
 Diagnosed with seriously illness in last 5 years         
  Yes 52.1% 23.6% 46.6% 49.5% 27.5% 40.9% 60.5% 41.7%
  No 51.5% 27.1% 42.3% 52.5% 24.3% 41.9% 61.8% 43.3%
 Close relative/friend seriously ill in last 5 years         
  Yes 52.5% 26.9% 41.6% 52.5% 25.1% 40.9% 60.6% 43.1%
  No 49.7% 25.9% 44.4% 51.4% 23.5% 43.4% 64.2% 43.3%
 Death of close relative/friend in last 5 years         
  Yes 50.7% 27.1% 43.9% 51.0% 25.5% 43.8% 61.8% 43.4%
  No 53.1% 25.2% 40.1% 55.1% 21.9% 38.6% 61.8% 42.6%
 Cared for relative/friend in last months of life   *       
  Yes 50.7% 29.4% 43.6% 52.0% 26.2% 39.8% 62.6% 44.1%
  No 52.3% 24.0% 42.1% 52.9% 23.0% 44.2% 60.7% 42.3%
Quality or quantity of life    * **     **
 To extend life 37.0% 23.8% 30.0% 51.4% 22.9% 31.4% 50.0% 34.1%
 Both equally important 49.6% 22.5% 38.4% 46.7% 21.3% 41.0% 60.2% 41.1%
 To improve quality of life 52.8% 27.7% 44.9% 55.9% 25.8% 43.1% 62.2% 44.4%
  1. Legend: Significant results from bivariate analysis are indicated by * (p < 0.05) and ** (p < 0.01).