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Table 4 Aluminum content in normal areas of the breast according to the clinical characteristics of the women and the pathological features of the surrounding tumors

From: Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

Characteristics Total Aluminum content in mg/Kg
   Mean (sd)   Negative* 0.05 - 2.0 ≥ 2  
Age    P** n (%) n (%) n (%) P trend***
<40 20 1.13(1.59) 0.17 3 (14.3) 15 (12.8) 2 (16.7) 0.91
>4 0 130 1.76(11.90)   18 (85.7) 102 (87.2) 10 (83.3)  
BMI           
<25 46 3.68(19.9) 0.38 5 (33.3) 36 (35.6) 5 (55.6) 0.40
≥25 79 0.78(1.13)   10 (66.7) 65 (64.4) 4 (44.4)  
Menopausal status           
Post 42 4.06(20.88) 0.12 6 (35.3) 33 (31.7) 3 (30) 0.75
Pre 89 0.73(0.98)   11 (64.7) 71 (68.3) 7 (70)  
Quadrant           
Upper external 92 2.19(14.13) 0.59 15 (71.4) 70 (59.8) 7 (58.3) 0.37
Other 58 0.87(1.32)   6 (28.6) 47 (40.2) 5 (41.7)  
Tumor size           
<2.0 cm 72 0.78(0.94) 0.28 6 (30) 60 (51.7) 6 (50) 0.16
≥2.0 cm 76 2.56(15.56)   14 (70) 56 (48.3) 6 (50)  
Stage           
I-II 90 2.19(14.28) 0.42 10 (50) 74 (63.8) 6 (50) 0.75
III – IV 58 0.92(1.51)   10 (50) 42 (36.2) 6 (50)  
Histologic grade           
I-II 26 0.89(1.30) 0.53 4 (21.1) 20 (18.2) 2 (20) 0.88
III 113 1.89(12.75)   15 (78.9) 90 (81.8) 8 (80)  
Estrogen receptor           
Negative 40 0.56(0.49) 0.009 2 10 37 33.3 1 (8.3) 0.62
Positive 103 2.18(13.37)   18 90 74 66.7 11 (91.7)  
Progesterone receptor           
Negative 56 0.63(0.68) 0.04 4 (20) 49 (44.5 3 (25) 0.43
Positive 86 2.46(14.62)   16 (80) 61 (55.5) 9 (75)  
cerbb2 status           
Negative 94 0.82(1.19) 0.77 13 (68.4) 74 (67.9) 7 (58.3) 0.61
Positive 46 3.68(19.96)   6 (31.6) 35 (32.1) 5 (41.7)  
  1. Note: The aluminum concentration was categorized as negative, 0.05-2.0 mg/ kg and ≥ 2.0 mg/ kg according to the three-tiered percentile distribution of the raw data. *Aluminum detection threshold for the GF-AAS was set at 0.05 mg/kg; ** In this column, the p values refer to the comparison of the mean Aluminum concentrations in each strata, using independent samples t-tests with the log-transformed (to base e) data; ***In this column, the p-values refer to the Chi-squares for trends; i.e. if p ≤ 0.05, there is a significant trend in Aluminum concentration related to the specified characteristic (see statistics for more details).