Standardized trend of CEC, V-CEC, CEP, as a function of chemotherapy the day before or after tumor resection. (A) Data from a non-tumor-bearing patient who received adjuvant chemotherapy after tumor resection. (B) Data from a tumor-bearing patient who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy before tumor resection. Chemotherapy immediately reduced the CEC, V-CEC, and CEP numbers, followed by a rebound elevation of the CEC and CEP numbers. The “wave” patterns were similar between the non-tumor-bearing and tumor-bearing patients.