Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of observational studies on the association between ARA and risk of skin cancer

From: Arachidonic acid and cancer risk: a systematic review of observational studies

References Study Subjects Exposure assessment Skin cancer assessment (diagnosis) Adjustment for potential confounders Assessment of reporting quality * Main findings
Intergroup comparison   P or Ptrend
Study design: case-control study (temporal relationship among exposure and outcome is unclear)
Exposure assessment: dietary intake
Hakim et al. 2000 [48] Survey, USA, case-control design 301 nonmetastatic skin SCC patients aged ≥30, 267 population-baseed controls with no prior history of skin cancer, matched by age, sex 24-HDR of 4 days, validated Histopathologically diagnosed skin SCC selected from Southeastern Arizona Skin Cancer Registry Age, sex, total energy intake, history of diagnosed actinic keratosis, tanning ability, freckles on arms, use of sunscreen 22 Dietary ARA intake, g/day, tertile OR (95% CI) Ptrend
T1: ≤0.1 1.00 0.16
T2: 0.11-0.20 0.86 (0.57-1.29)
T3: >0.20 0.70 (0.46-1.08)
Exposure assessment: blood ARA level
Harris et al. 2005 [49] Survey, USA, case-control design 336 nonmetastatic skin SCC patients aged ≥30, 321 controls with no prior history of skin cancer, matched by age, sex, race Erythrocyte fatty acids (fasting blood), GC analysis, precision indicated Histopathologically diagnosed skin SCC selected from Southeastern Arizona Skin Cancer Registry Age, sex, lab, tanning ability, freckles on arms, exclusion of 94 controls with history of prior actinic keratosis 25 ARA composition weight%, quartile OR (95% CI) Ptrend
Q1 1.00 Not shown
Q2 1.61 (0.92-2.80)  
Q3 1.40 (0.79-2.49)  
Q4 2.38 (1.37-4.12)  
Exposure assessment: tissue ARA level
Mackie et al. 1987 [50] Survey, Australia, 1984-1985 100 primary melanoma patients, 100 controls with no history of malignant skin tumor, matched by age, sex, race Subcutaneous adipose tissue triglyceride, GC analysis blinded to case-control status, precision not indicated Selected from Sydney Melanoma Unit None 10 ARA composition%, mean ARA composition%, mean P
Case: Control:  
0.41 0.28 <0.001
  1. 24-HDR: 24-h dietary recall, ARA Arachidonic, GC Gas chromatography, OR Odds Ratio, SCC Squamous cell caricinoma, USA United States of America.
  2. *Result of the critical evaluation carried out using the STROBE tool.