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Table 4 Synergy and multiplicative indices between asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking

From: Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces

Cigarette smoking (pack-years) Asbestos exposure Label Cases Controls Odds ratio* 95% CI
< 10 None R0 84 745 1.0 -
  Low 13 69 1.47 (0.77 – 2.81)
  Medium/High RA 2 7 2.20 0.42 – 11.41)
10 - < 40 None 630 778 5.28 (3.90 – 7.14)
  Low 90 90 6.67 (4.41 – 10.10)
  Medium/High 20 13 10.39 (4.83 – 22.36)
≥ 40 None RS 678 266 17.68 (12.90 – 24.22)
  Low --- 85 40 15.62 (9.72 – 25.09)
  Medium/High RAS 16 3 38.59 (10.78 – 138.08)
Synergy Index      2.10  
Multiplicativity Index      0.99  
  1. * adjusted for age, province, occupational exposure to diesel and silica, and second hand cigarette smoke.