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Figure 1 | BMC Cancer

Figure 1

From: Patient-tailored modulation of the immune system may revolutionize future lung cancer treatment

Figure 1

The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous and complex system of tumor cells (black) and ‘normal’ stromal cells, including endothelial cells and their precursors, pericytes, smooth-muscle cells, and fibroblasts of various phenotypes, located within the connective tissue or extra-cellular matrix (e.g. collagen). Leukocyte infiltration is an important characteristic of cancer and the main components of these infiltrates include natural killer (T) cells, neutrophils, B- and T-lymphocyte subsets, myeloid derived suppressor cells, macrophages and dendritic cells [37]. Based on their functions, these cells can be divided into cells with a potentially positive impact on the antitumor response (right) and cells with a detrimental effect (left). From mast cells and T helper 17 cells it is yet ambiguous what kind of effect these cells have within the micro-environment. The net effect of the interactions between these various cell types and their secreted products within the environment of an established tumor participates in determining anti-tumor immunity, angiogenesis, metastasis, overall cancer cell survival and proliferation.

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