Global T cell cytokine profiles among patients with CNS tumors and healthy controls. (a) The geometric mean values and standard deviation of IFN-γ and IL-5 levels from all T cell cultures generated with anti-CD3 mAb among the four groups examined are presented. Modest decreases in the amount of secreted IFN-γ are seen among all patients with CNS tumors when compared to healthy subjects, while a significant elevation of IL-5 levels is seen only in recurrent GBM patients. (b) The ratios of IFN-γ to IL-5 for all primary T cell responses are shown for each cohort. There was no difference in this ratio comparing patients with meningiomas to healthy subjects, but patients with primary and recurrent GBM patients exhibited significantly lower ratios compared to both healthy subjects and meningioma patients.