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Table 7 Pooled effects of yoga on physical and psychosocial outcomes in patients with breast cancer

From: Physical and psychosocial benefits of yoga in cancer patients and survivors, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Outcome # studies Pooled effect     Test of heterogeneity   
Physical outcomes   d 95% CI Z P I2 Q P
Physical function 6 0.60 −0.05 to 1.25 1.81 0.07 87.51 40.03 <0.0001
  5a 0.17 −0.06 to 0.40 1.48 0.14 0.00 1.20 0.88
Functional well-being 4 0.31 0.04 to 0.58 2.24 0.03 0.00 1.25 0.74
Psychosocial outcomes   d 95% CI Z P I 2 Q P
Distress 7 −0.95 −1.49 to −0.49 −4.04 <0.001 80.79 31.24 <0.001
  6b −0.75 −1.09 to −0.42 −4.39 <0.001 59.59 12.37 0.03
Anxiety 7 −1.25 −1.93 to −0.56 −3.64 <0.001 91.45 70.20 <0.001
  6b −0.77 −1.08 to −0.46 −4.86 <0.001 58.42 12.03 0.03
Depression 7 −1.47 −2.42 to −0.53 −3.05 0.002 93.29 89.46 <0.001
  6b −0.69 −1.02 to −0.37 −4.21 <0.001 42.15 8.64 0.12
Fatigue 7 −0.51 −0.79 to −0.22 −3.46 0.001 43.52 10.62 0.10
Sleep disturbance 4 −0.26 −0.53 to 0.02 −1.82 0.07 0.00 1.25 0.74
General HRQoL 7 0.88 0.25 to 1.50 2.75 0.006 86.49 44.41 <0.001
  6a 0.61 0.16 to 1.06 2.50 0.008 69.79 16.55 0.005
  5a,c 0.37 0.11 to 0.62 2.85 0.004 0.00 3.40 0.49
Emotional function 5 0.49 0.16 to 0.81 2.93 0.003 26.58 5.45 0.24
Social function 6 0.33 0.12 to 0.54 3.12 0.002 0.00 1.94 0.86
  1. a Excluding outlier Chandwani et al. 2010 [55]; b Excluding outlier Banerjee et al. [51]. c Excluding outlier Raghavendra et al. 2007 [49].